History Podcasts

Lenny Patrick

Lenny Patrick

Leonard (Lenny) Patrick was born on 6th October, 1913. His family emigrated to the United States and he grew up in Lincoln Park, Chicago. As a young man he became friendly with Jack Ruby and Dave Yarras.

Patrick became a member of the Chicago Outfit and during the 1930s he was imprisoned for a bank robbery in Indiana. Patrick, considered to be the prime suspect in several gangland killings, including that of Ben Zuckerman on 14th January, 1944.

In 1947 Patrick was arrested in 1947 for the murder of James M. Ragen, the national manager of the Continental Press Service, an organization that was in conflict with Mafia leader, Carlos Marcello. G. Robert Blakey and Richard Billings pointed out in their book, The Plot to Kill the President: "Four witnesses identified Lenny Patrick, Dave Yarras, and William Block as the gunmen, but after one witness was murdered, two recanted, and another fled, the indictment was dropped." Patrick was released and no charges were ever brought against him for the killing. When the Kefauver Senate Committee later investigated the murder of Ragen, something they regarded as a landmark syndicate event), another key witness in the case was murdered.

In 1955 The Chicago Tribune reported that Patrick was employed by Sam Giancana and that he was considered to be one of "two top lieutenants". During this period Patrick became the owner of a restaurant in Chicago. It has been claimed that this became the base of one of the largest bookmaking operations in the city. According to the U.S. Senate, Organized Crime and Narcotics Report (1963-64) Patrick was an "expert on gangland executions" and was credited by the police with "masterminding some of the Syndicate's most important liquidations."

The historian, David Kaiser, pointed out in The Road to Dallas (2008) that Patrick was linked to Sam Giancana: "Bugs and phone taps revealed his associations with hit men Lenny Patrick and David Yaras of Chicago (both childhood friends of Jack Ruby)." According to a FBI informant, Patrick and Dave Yarras were responsible for the killing of City Alderman, Benjamin F. Lewis on 13th February, 1963.

Lenny Patrick was interviewed by the FBI after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He was asked about his long-time friend, Jack Ruby. Patrick acknowledged having known Ruby as "a neighborhood chum" but denied he was connected to the Mafia. Patrick claimed: "No matter how much you investigate, you'll never learn nothing, as he (Ruby) had nothing to do with nothing."

Jack Ruby's sister, Eva Rubinstein Grant, told the Warren Commission that Patrick and Dave Yarras, were two of his closest friends in Chicago. This evidence was ignored and General Counsel J. Lee Rankin told Commission members that Ruby only had links to "the minor underworld".

In a 1965 U.S. Senate report on organized crime, Patrick was identified as the "syndicate overlord of the 24th and 50th wards" whose activities included "extortion, mayhem and murders". The report went onto say that Patrick's business interests included "hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, liquor stores, aluminum products, a disposal service, vending machines, insurance and industrial uniforms". It was also pointed out that he had been arrested 28 times.

Dave Yarras was murdered in 1974. Lenny Patrick gave a deposition in 1978. He claimed he did not have any relevant information on Jack Ruby. However, he did accept that his friend, Yaras, "was closer to Ruby than he was".

In 1992, Patrick agreed to become a government witness following his indictment for racketeering charges. His testimony would result in the arrest of Gus Alex and several other key figures involved in the rackets run by the Chicago Outfit.

Leonard (Lenny) Patrick died on 1st March, 2006.

Nicoletti grew up in an impoverished and dysfunctional family in Chicago his parents were both natives of Santa Caterina Villarmosa, Sicily. They lived at 737 Campbell Avenue in Near West Side, Chicago. On February 27, 1929, at the age of 12, Charles shot and killed his own father, allegedly in self-defense. The 39-year-old Philip Nicoletti was a drunkard who regularly beat his wife and two sons on this occasion, Philip viciously attacked his younger son and pursued him with a knife. According to Chicago police records, Charles ran into a bedroom, where a gun was kept in a bureau drawer. Nicoletti was exonerated by the Cook County coroner. He dropped out of school in eighth grade and soon joined the "Forty-Two Gang." At the time, the gang's members included such future Outfit members as Giancana, Sam Battaglia, "Lew Farrell" Louis Fratto, Sam DeStefano and "Willie Potatoes" William Daddano.

By the late 1950s, along with Felix Alderisio, Nicoletti was one of the most feared triggermen in Chicago and was drawing attention from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Chicago police. A number of times Nicoletti and Alderisio teamed up for a "hit," including one occasion on which they were discovered by police sitting on the floor in a car later dubbed "the hitmobile" by reporters. This car had special compartments where guns were stored and special switches to turn lights off at certain times. When questioned by police the two said they were "waiting for a friend."

In 1962, Nicoletti took part in an infamous torture case. He, Alderisi, Carlo ''duke'' Olandese and Anthony Spilotro, known as "Tony the Ant", had kidnapped 24-year-old Billy McCarthy, a thug who had killed two Outfit associates with the help of Jimmy Miraglia, also age 24. The three men started torturing McCarthy to find out the name of his accomplice. Spilotro had placed the man's head in an industrial vice and started squeezing it tighter and tighter. Suddenly, McCarthy's eye popped completely out of its socket. At that point, he revealed his accomplice's name then both men were killed. Years later, Tony Spilotro told this story to his friend Frank Cullotta. Spilotro was impressed by Nicoletti's reaction to the gory scene: "Boy, this is a heartless guy. He was eating pasta when Billy's eye popped out." This torture scene was re-enacted in Martin Scorsese's 1995 film, Casino.

In the 1960s, Nicoletti was questioned by two FBI Agents, including agent William F. Roemer, to see whether they could develop Nicoletti as an informant against the Outfit. According to Roemer, Nicoletti gave him the names of several car dealerships he worked at and was very cordial apparently, all the employment leads checked out. But Nicoletti never flipped and never talked to the FBI again, though there was eventually talk in Chicago that Nicoletti had flipped.

It has been alleged that Nicoletti was involved in as many as 20 mob hits during his career as a hitman. In 2010, Playboy magazine published an article by Hillel Levin in which Nicoletti was implicated in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy by James Files, an inmate within the Illinois Department of Corrections, and Chauncey Marvin Holt.

Remembering Anaheim's History

A story that I am quite certain has been forgotten in time, is the murder of Patrick Henry Dillon. Not much is known about Patrick Henry Dillon, just that he was an Irish immigrant who lived in Anaheim at the time of his death. I tried to find him in the census records, but apparently he wasn't living in Anaheim or Los Angeles during the previous 1870 census. I did find several Patrick Dillon's all over California. so anyone of them could have been him.

On July 8th, not the 7th as the cemetery records claim, Patrick Henry Dillon was murdered while taking a nap under a tree on the outskirts of town. Some reports claim he was passed out drunk, while others say he was just asleep. Either case, while he was sleeping, a man by the name of Vicente Valdez (other accounts name him as "Rodriguez") snuck up on him.

Valdez had went to the neighboring house of Mrs. Culp and taken an axe from her property. He then attacked the then sleeping Mr. Dillon, crushing his skull with every blow from the axe. After the dastardly deed was done, Valdez took the axe and put it back at Mrs. Culp's house and took off with the money he had stolen from Dillon's pockets and the boots off of his feet.

APL Archives
After getting away, Valdez attempted to pawn Dillon's boots at one of the vineyards, asking for a trade for "Aguardiente" (a very strong alcoholic drink). Suspicion rose about where the boots came from, and Valdez fled. When the body of Dillon was discovered, Deputy Sheriff Richard Barham took it upon himself to make sure that the murderer was tracked down and brought to justice.

On July 10, 1878, just two days after the murder, Valdez was arrested and brought to jail. According to the newspapers of the time, the town was hell bent on vigilante justice but Sheriff Braham, "eluded the vigilance of Judge Lynch, and lodged the prisoner safely in jail."

Newspaper Article
By August, Valdez pleaded guilty and was sentenced to life in prison by the District Court. As for Patrick Dillon, sadly it seems that he has been forgotten. No photos of him exist to my knowledge. Perhaps some long lost relative out there has one somewhere. He was buried in the Anaheim Cemetery at Section: CP Block: 6 Lot: 46 Space: 1, but the Anaheim records and the Orange County records misspelled his name as "Pabrict" for whatever reason. How they got Pabrict from Patrick is beyond me, but now his story has been found and told.

I have contacted Findagrave to correct his name, so that he can be remembered properly. Although we may not know where he came from, we know where he had been, Anaheim. This town was the last place he called home. Why he was sleeping out there under a tree in the vineyards is not known. Perhaps he worked there and was taking a nap. Perhaps he was drunk and passed out. Who knows?!
But he didn't deserve to die the way he did.

Rest In Peace, Patrick Henry Dillon. You are not forgotten.

(Copyright 2014- J'aime Rubio)

Orange County Cemetery District Records
Sac Daily Union -July 8, 1878, July 9, 1878
Los Angeles Herald- July 10, 1878, August 17, 1878
Anaheim Public Library Archive Photo of Vineyard--

Patrick History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Patrick is a name that first reached England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. It comes from the given name Patrick. It was largely as a result of the fame of the 5th century Romano British saint of this name that Patrick was such a popular given name in the Middle Ages. It derives from the Latin Patricus, meaning the son of a noble father, a member of the patrician class, and a member of the Roman hereditary aristocracy.

They claim descent from Patrick de la Lande who was from La Lande near Caen in Normandy. "William Patrick de la Lande is mentioned by Wace as the entertainer of Harold during his visit to Normandy, and as challenging him to combat at Hastings for breach of his oath." [1]

To better understand this quotation, the reader needs to know that Wace (c. 1110-1174) was a Norman poet, born in Jersey. His "Roman de Brut," was a verse history of Britain, based on the Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth. In many ways, Wace's works often referred to as Wace's poems, are the only accurate history of those times.

Gute Zeiten, schlechte Zeiten started on 11 May 1992. It is broadcast from Monday to Friday on RTL. It is repeated the following day at 8:30 a.m.

The first episode was broadcast at VOX on October 1995. After the 2500 episode it was taken out of the program VOX on February 2005.

Many main roles of the series led several cafés and restaurants in the beginning of the series, that's are the pubs Allistairs, Siggis Bar and Daniels Bar, the bar Bluebird, the restaurant Fasan and the café Mocca for example. It were to seen many business in the area of the media industry, that's are the advertising agency Löpelmann, Sisters and the newspaper editorial offices of the local newspaper City-Lights and Morgenecho. In Viktoria-Luise-Gymnasium teach Elisabeth Meinhart and Clemens Richter. There played many young main roles. It gave many shops: Holms Tante Emma Laden, Charlies Laden, Kais Corner and several boutiques. Other important localities were a motorcycle workshop, who have led Peter Becker and Heiko Richter. The GP surgeries have led Dr. Ulrich and then Dr. Gundlach. Now, Jo Gerner leads a law firm. The hostel Traumfabrik was destroyed in 2010. Now it is to see the lifestyle magazine Metropolitan Trends of Katrin Flemming, the club Mauerwerk, the café Vereinsheim, Tayfuns food shops Spätkauf and Badak Bio, the cosmetics business of Emily Höfer, the Jeremiah hospital.

The North American State Canada was a major role at GZSZ, because many characters went to this state. Paula Rapf went to Canada and began a job in a farm. Afterwards it came her best friend Tim Böcking with his son Felix to this State and then came Tim's girlfriend Caroline Neustädter with her son Benjamin to Tim. In 2010, Tim's father Clemens Richter and his wife Elisabeth Meinhart moved to Canada. John Bachmann visits the country regularly.

In 2010 moved Alexander Cöster in a loft in the newly constructed Kiez. A friend of Alexander gave him the apartment. The loft was seen in 2011, when the exchange student Zac Klingenthal moved to his loft. Now, Alexander lives at the apartment of Maren. At the moment, the loft doesn't show, because Vince, Zac and Bommel get to change the apartment.

The law firm will be led of Jo Gerner since 1993. This law firm was shown at different location. Over time, Gerner moved his law firm in his own apartment Gerners Villa an now Townhouse. His secretary was Heike Rieckmann, who was seen until 2008. Her successor was Iris Cöster. Patrick Gerner worked also at the law firm, as well as the father of Patrick. The temporary staff was Emily Höfer, Zac Klingenthal and Tim Böcking.

There is an atelier since summer 1999, but it always change. The first resident was Peter Becker. Over time it lived Barbara Graf, Christopher Bohlstädt, Xenia die Montalban, Senta Lemke, Hannes Bachmann, Ben Bachmann, John Bachmann, Fabian Moreno, Vincent Buhr, Henrik Beck, Leon Moreno, Pia Koch, Till Kuhn and Patrick Gerner in the atelier. The Atelier wasn't seen for five months, because of a water damage. After the separation of Gerner, Katrin lived in the Atelier with her daughter Johanna Flemming until Johanna went to a boarding school.

On June 2011 bought Tayfun Badak a biostore. His wife Dascha Badak worked there, now she don't live in Berlin. It was only seen the siding of the store.

There is a hospital since 1993. Before that it was seen the Marien-hospital. It was a crux of the matter, when Sonja Wiebe and Andy Lehmann had an accident. Since 2009, there are several scenes in the Jeremiah hospital, because Ayla Özgül is a physiotherapist and Philip Höfer is a doctor there.

Kollestyle is a beautysalon. Since 2013 it leads Emily Höfer. The salon is next to the Mauerwerk. Before that it was a Boutique called prinzesskleid (former: GretaMarlene) of Jasmin Flemming and before that it was a hat shop.

The Mauerwerk had opened in 2008. The owner was Leon Moreno and Henrik Beck. Soon afterwards Henrik left the town and John Bachmann was the partners. After discrepancies Leon left the Mauerwerk. His successor was Tayfun Badak. Now, Leon works as a cook again. Because of a fire at the Fasan, the crew was used at the Mauerwerk. This are Armin, Stefan, Daniela and Kathleen. Furthermore, Vince Köpke does a training as a cook and Jasmin works as a condition. David Brenner was the boss of the Mauerwerk for a short time because of the Mafia. But he gave it back, when he went in the witness protection. Leon tried to get the crew again. Everyone except for Daniela, because she found an another job.

The Mauerwerk is one of the best known club in Berlin. Many interpreters are to sing at the Mauerwerk. Nena, Mando Diao, 2raumwohnung and Jennifer Rostock for example. One a week Pia Koch is to seen as a DJane. All of the guest stars, who perform at the Mauerwerk, they belong to the prominent guest appearances.

Tayfun Badak bought the Mauerwerk and made from the upper floor of the Mauerwerk an apartment. He moved with Max Tuner Krüger and Dominik Gundlach in this apartment. It lived also Tayfuns girlfriend Emily Höfer there.

The Metropolitan Trends is a lifestyle magazine of Katrin Flemming.

In 2008, Gerner bought the local newspaper Morgenecho. The old editorial office from the courtyard was to laid in Gerners Townhouse, because of a water damage. Beginning of 2010, the Morgenecho was sold, because Katrin wanted to start a lifestyle magazine. The editorial team is threatened with cancellation, but they are to started at the Metropolitan Trends.

In May 2010, the magazine was presented the public.

The owner is Jo Gerner, publishers are Katrin Flemming and Sophie Lindt.

. Currently, it works Maren Seefeld as editor-in-chef, 'Tamara Wegener and Natalie. Alexander Cöster was the photographer and editor-in-chef for a long time.

From 2006 to 2008 was the owner of the Spätkauf Danny. In 2008 Tayfun Badak bought the shop, because Danny was stressed and now, he works as a staff. The temporary staff was Tim Böcking, Lenny Cöster and Emily Höfer and Tayfuns wife Dascha Badak. Mesut works there.

There is the Townhouse since 2008. In this apartment lives Jo Gerner. Until of the separation, Katrin Flemming lived there and Johanna too. Dominik Gundlack, Max Krüger, Jasmin Flemming, Patrick Gerner and Anna lived also in the Townhouse.

In the lower rooms is the magazine Metropolitan Trends and the office rooms of Katrin and Jo. On the first floor is the living area of the family Gerner. On the second floor are the sleeping chambers and in the attic is the granny flat of Dominik. Patrick had to live in the cellar for a short time.

There is the Vereinsheim since 2010. At that time it was a hotel. Pia Koch had rented the lobby and did it as his own café. It was founded as Vereinsheim, because Pia didn't have the money for the concessions. Pia Koch, Emily Höfer, 'Dominik Gundlach and M'ax Krüger were the partners. Now, Anni also works there. By and by Pia and Emily sold her shares to Max Krüger. Now, Max and Dominik are the owner of the café. Over the Vereinsheim is the communal residence of Dominik and Tuner.


The Victoria-Luise-Gymnasium is the school at GZSZ and is on the Kiez. The teachers Clemens Richter and Elisabeth Meinhart have taught at this school until 2010. 34 main roles were pupil at the school. Lenny Cöster also worked as a care taker

Till to summer 2013 have visited Zac Klingenthal and Lilly Seefeld the school and have finished with her Abitur. At the time, Mieze is a pupil on this school.

From 1995 to 2002, there was a shared apartment, but it was redeveloped, because of a water damage. The inhabitants of that time had to move out. That are Sandra Lemke, Marie Balzer, Julia Blum and Verena Koch. They moved in an other apartment in the same house. This exists since 2002. It lived Lena and John Bachmann, Caroline Neustädter, Henrik Beck, Franziska Reuter, Paula Rapf, Leon Moreno, Verena Koch, Emily Höfer, Tayfun Badak und Ayla Özgül there.

Meanwhile, it lives Jasmin Flemming, Nele, Anni, Ayla and Mesut.

Bachmann/Höfer apartment

The apartment of Bachmann exists since 2001 and is on the Kiez. The address is the Reichenburger Staße 16. In the beginning, Xenia di Montalban rented the apartment, because she wanted to make the Christopher-Bohlstädt-foundation. This foundation was for illiterates. It was to small and went out with her foundation. Just a short time Patrizia Bachmann moved with her sons John and Ben in this apartment. Afterwards it came Hannes Bachmann, the father of John and Ben. Then, Ben and Patrizia went to Africa and Senta Lemke, the sister of Patrizia moved in this apartment. Senta and Hannes were a pair. Afterwards, it came Emily and Philip Höfer, the half siblings of John and the illegitimate children of Hannes. Paula Rapf, the wife of John also lived in this apartment. They lived for a long time in this constellation, until Hannes and Senta are died at an air crash. The relationship of John and Paula failed. She moved out and after disputes Emily also left this apartment. It lived also Leon Moreno, Vince Köpke, Tayfun Badak, Zac Klingenthal, Lilly Cöster, 'Dascha Badakand David Brenner in this apartment

It lives now Philip Höfer in this apartment.

Seefeld/Cöster apartment

At the end of 2008, it moved the family Cöster in this apartment. Lenny Cöster and his friend Carsten Reimann lived for a long time there. After the seperation of Alexander and Iris Cöster and Lenny, Carsten and Lucy Cöster left Berlin. Alexander lived alone for a long time. He moved out, and moved in a loft.

Since December 2010, it lived Maren, Lilly and Tanja Seefeld there. Alexander moved in this apartment again, because he and Maren were a pair. On Summer 2013 Tanja moved out of the apartment. Now, it lives the son of Maren Jonas in the aparment.

Moreno/Koch apartment (former of Richter)

Clemens Richter and his wife Vera Richter moved in this apartment in 1996. The address is the Reichenburger Straße 1. After the separation of Clemens and Vera, Elisabeth Meinhart-Richter, the good friend of Clemens moved into this apartment in 2002 and since 2009 they are married. In 2010 they left Berlin and went to Canada. They gave the apartment her old acquaintances Leon Moreno. Now, he is living with his son Oskar Moreno in this apartment. His other son Vince Köpke is living with his friend Zac Klingenthal in a shared apartment.

It lives also Anna Meisner, Nico Weimershaus, Frank Richter, Cora Hinze, Alexander Hinze, A. R. Daniel, Rosalinde Blümel, Tim und Felix Böcking, Dascha Höfer, Iris Cöster and Verena Koch in this apartment.

Patrick and Sarah Henry: Mental illness in 18th century America

Curator Dr. Katherine Ott invited students in Dr. Samuel J. Redman's Museum/Historic Site Interpretation Seminar to explore the museum's disability history collections and write blog posts sharing their research.

"Give me liberty, or give me death!" School children learn these words that Patrick Henry exclaimed on the eve of the American Revolution. However, that is nearly all most Americans know about this Founding Father from Virginia. This year's anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act is a good time to recover the history of how people in the past, including statesmen such as Patrick Henry, understood disability. Henry's wife, Sarah Shelton Henry, dealt with depression and violent outbursts. Despite recommendations, together they refused to place her in a hospital, instead providing care for her at home until her death.

Patrick and Sarah knew each other from childhood and fell in love. They married in 1754 at a very young age, even by 18th century American standards. He was 18 and she 16, and together they had six children. After the sixth child, Sarah became increasingly unwell.

There is little information on the specific nature of Sarah's illness, nor is there a record of Sarah's participation in decisions about her treatment. But there is no doubt that she experienced mental instability. She was ill in 1774 with signs dating back to 1767. She was emotionally unsettled and became violent at times, to the point that she had to be restrained by a strait-dress (an early form of a strait-jacket) to prevent her from harming herself and others. Patrick knew he had to do something to help his wife and care for his family.

Mental illness was understood very differently in the 18th century compared to now. The populace generally viewed it as sinful and criminal, a sign of the devil. A new hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia, the Eastern State Hospital, opened in 1773 specifically for the mentally ill. It served as an alternative to prison or other punishments. The treatments were harsh but also common—patients were bled, blistered, subjected to pain, shock, and terror. They were dunked in water and restrained, resulting in injury or death. The fact that there was an institution separate from almshouses and hospitals for treating the mentally ill is noteworthy. Eastern State Hospital represented progress in care for the mentally ill.

Patrick Henry, who had spent much time in Williamsburg, knew about the hospital and refused to send Sarah there. The Henrys were a family of some wealth, and this probably helped in the decision for Sarah to remain at their home, Scotchtown Plantation. They created a small apartment for her in a sunny section of the mansion's basement. Patrick assigned a slave to serve as a nurse to her, and he also aided directly in her care. He and the children visited her often, and their eldest daughter and her husband moved home to help care for her mother. Sarah died in 1775, possibly of suicide, but historians do not know the exact cause of her death.

Patrick had the option to send Sarah away to an institution, and although ground-breaking at the time, hospitalization would have resulted in a much lower quality of life for his wife. Whether his decision was a result of love for his wife or concern for his reputation and political ambition, his approach to mental illness was remarkably innovative for the 18th century. The example of Sarah Shelton Henry and the Eastern State Hospital mark the beginning of a wave of reform in the approach to mental illness and disability.

Today in History

Today is Sunday, May 30, the 150th day of 2021. There are 215 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On May 30, 1431, Joan of Arc, condemned as a heretic, was burned at the stake in Rouen (roo-AHN’), France.

In 1883, 12 people were trampled to death in a stampede sparked by a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge was in danger of collapsing.

In 1922, the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in a ceremony attended by President Warren G. Harding, Chief Justice William Howard Taft and Robert Todd Lincoln.

In 1937, ten people were killed when police fired on steelworkers demonstrating near the Republic Steel plant in South Chicago.

In 1943, during World War II, American troops secured the Aleutian island of Attu from Japanese forces.

In 1971, the American space probe Mariner 9 blasted off from Cape Kennedy on a journey to Mars.

In 1972, three members of the Japanese Red Army opened fire at Lod Airport in Tel Aviv, Israel, killing 26 people. Two attackers died the third was captured.

In 1989, student protesters in Beijing erected a “Goddess of Democracy” statue in Tiananmen Square (the statue was destroyed in the Chinese government’s crackdown).

In 1994, Mormon Church president Ezra Taft Benson died in Salt Lake City at age 94.

In 1996, Britain’s Prince Andrew and the former Sarah Ferguson were granted an uncontested decree ending their 10-year marriage.

In 2002, a solemn, wordless ceremony marked the end of the agonizing cleanup at ground zero in New York, 8 1/2 months after 9/11.

In 2006, the FBI said it had found no trace of Jimmy Hoffa after digging up a suburban Detroit horse farm.

In 2015, Vice President Joe Biden’s son, former Delaware attorney general Beau Biden, died at age 46 of brain cancer.

Ten years ago: President Barack Obama selected Army Gen. Martin Dempsey to be the Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman. Germany announced plans to abandon nuclear power over the next 11 years, outlining an ambitious strategy in the wake of Japan’s Fukushima disaster to replace atomic power with renewable energy sources.

Five years ago: President Barack Obama challenged Americans on Memorial Day to fill the silence from those who died serving their country with love and support for families of the fallen, “not just with words but with our actions.”

One year ago: Tense protests over the death of George Floyd and other police killings of Black people grew across the country racially diverse crowds held mostly peaceful demonstrations in dozens of cities, though many later descended into violence, with police cars set ablaze. The National Guard was deployed outside the White House, where crowds taunted law enforcement officers, who fired pepper spray. A fourth day of violence in Los Angeles prompted the mayor to impose a citywide curfew and call in the National Guard. Street protests in New York City over police killings spiraled into the city’s worst day of unrest in decades, as fires burned, windows were smashed and confrontations between demonstrators and officers flared. A rocket ship built by Elon Musk’s SpaceX took off from Florida’s Cape Canaveral to carry two Americans to the International Space Station it ushered in a new era of commercial space travel.

Today’s Birthdays: Actor Ruta Lee is 86. Actor Keir Dullea is 85. Rock musician Lenny Davidson (The Dave Clark Five) is 77. Actor Stephen Tobolowsky is 70. Actor Colm Meaney is 68. Actor Ted McGinley is 63 Actor Ralph Carter is 60. Actor Tonya Pinkins is 59. Country singer Wynonna Judd is 57. Rock musician Tom Morello (Audioslave Rage Against The Machine) is 57. Actor Mark Sheppard is 57. Movie director Antoine Fuqua is 56. Actor John Ross Bowie is 50. Rock musician Patrick Dahlheimer (Live) is 50. Actor Idina Menzel is 50. Rapper Cee Lo Green is 46. Rapper Remy Ma is 41. Actor Blake Bashoff is 40. Christian rock musician James Smith (Underoath) is 39. Actor Javicia Leslie is 34. Actor Jake Short is 24. Actor Sean Giambrone is 22. Actor Jared Gilmore is 21.

Patrick Radden Keefe

The Massachusetts-based writer and investigative journalist is famous for writing a book named ‘Empire of Pain: The Secret History of the Sackler Dynasty’ which discussed how The Sackler Family was responsible for making and marketing OxyContin, a blockbuster painkiller that was a catalyst for the opioid crisis. Apart from being an author, he has written extensively for many publications including The New Yorker, Slate, and The New York Times Magazine. He also won the 2019 National Book Critics Circle Award (nonfiction) for writing ‘Say Nothing’.

Author Patrick Radden Keefe (Getty Images)

Pagan-Christian Fusion

Patrick’s goal of seeing Pagan Ireland converted did not sit well with the locals at first. It is recorded in the Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland that he was temporarily imprisoned, and several attempts were made on his life. Patrick took to carrying a dagger.

However, Patrick found a method that would eventually succeed, enabling him to convert the Irish without either sword or army. As well as working to build alliances with local leaders, he popularized the faith by harnessing the knowledge he had gained of the native language, culture and religion during his time in slavery, and using this to merge Irish lore and celebrations with Christianity.

He moved the dates of early Christian celebrations to dates that were sacred to the Pagans and merged Christian symbols with Pagan ones so that the new religion could be more easily assimilated. An 18 th century historical account records that Saint Patrick used the shamrock, a three-leaf clover, to explain the Holy Trinity. In Pagan Ireland, three was a significant number and the Irish had many triple deities. The triple spiral symbol, or Triskelion, appears at many ancient megalithic and Neolithic sites in Ireland.

As stated in the Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland:

“Nothing is clearer than that Patrick engrafted Christianity on the Pagan superstitions with so much skill, that he won the people over to the Christian religion before they understood the exact difference between the two systems of belief.”

Saint Patrick established the first church at a place called Saul, in Northern Ireland, and after that he planted more and more churches as he crisscrossed his way through Ireland. The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland record that:

“It was by him that many cells, monasteries, and churches were erected throughout Ireland seven hundred churches was their number. It was by him that bishops, priests, and persons of every dignity were ordained seven hundred bishops, and three thousand priests [was] their number.”

In just a few decades, Saint Patrick had converted all of Ireland to Christianity.

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Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel looks back at one of the most-famous plays in Chiefs' history--Dante Hall's incredible 93-yard touchdown return against the Denver Broncos.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs' History: Selecting TE Tony Gonzalez in the 1997 NFL Draft

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel looks back the decision to select TE Tony Gonzalez with the No. 13 overall pick in the 1997 NFL Draft.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: James Hasty Takes it 64 Yards for the Chiefs' Victory

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel looks back at one of the many memorable moments in the Chiefs-Raiders rivalry.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Derrick Thomas' NFL-record 7-Sack Day vs. Seahawks

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel looks back at one of the best pass rushers in NFL history and the best game of his life.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Stephone Paige's 309-yard Performance vs. Chargers

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel looks back at the day that former Chiefs' receiver Stephone Paige amassed 8 receptions for 309 yards and two touchdowns against the Chargers.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Will Shields' Consecutive Games Started Streak

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel takes a quick look back at one of the most-impressive statistics in the history of the NFL--Will Shields 223 consecutive games started.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs' History: Derrick Thomas' Strip-Sack Leads to Touchdown & Win over Vikings

Looking back at one of the best to ever do it in a game that his presence was felt early and often.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: The Historic 65 Toss Power Trap vs. Vikings in Super Bowl IV

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel takes us back to January 11, 1970 at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana, the site of Super Bowl IV and the location of the historic 65 Toss Power Trap Play that helped the Chiefs win their first, and currently only, Super Bowl title.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Trent Green Hits Eddie Kennison in Overtime vs. Packers

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel takes a look back at the Chiefs' 17-point fourth-quarter comeback against Brett Favre and the Green Bay Packers back in 2003.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Knile Davis Goes 106 Yards vs. Texans

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel takes us back to January 9, 2016 to re-live Knile Davis' 106-yard touchdown return to open up the AFC Wildcard game, which the Chiefs would go on to win 30-0.

Refreshing Moments in Chiefs History: Len Dawson to Otis Taylor in Super Bowl IV

Chiefs Reporter BJ Kissel takes us back to January 11, 1970 for the unforgettable 46-yard touchdown from Len Dawson to Otis Taylor to seal the Chiefs' Super Bowl IV victory.

'NFL 100 Greatest' No. 62: 'The Human Joystick' makes every Denver Bronco miss

Kansas City Chiefs wide receiver Dante Hall's epic punt-return touchdown against the Denver Broncos comes in as the No. 62 greatest play in NFL history.

'NFL 100 Greatest' No. 74: Chiefs head coach Hank Stram's '65 Toss Power Trap'

Kansas City Chiefs head coach Hank Stram's "65 Toss Power Trap" play call against the Minnesota Vikings comes in as the No. 74 play in NFL history.

Tony Gonzalez Pays Special Tribute to Chiefs Kingdom in Hall of Fame Speech

Tight end Tony Gonzalez recalls his top memories from his playing days with the Kansas City Chiefs during his Hall of Fame enshrinement speech.

Tony Gonzalez's Hall of Fame Speech

Hear 2019 Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee and former Kansas City Chiefs tight end Tony Gonzalez's full Hall of Fame speech.

Johnny Robinson's Hall of Fame Speech

Hear 2019 Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee and former Kansas City Chiefs defensive back Johnny Robinson's full Hall of Fame speech.

Johnny Robinson Receives His Hall of Fame Gold Jacket

Former NFL defensive back Johnny Robinson receive his Hall of Fame gold jacket at the Gold Jacket Ceremony in Canton, OH.

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