History Podcasts

5 February 1945

5 February 1945

5 February 1945

Western Front

British and Canadian troops begin an offenisve towards the Rhine

Eastern Front

Soviet troops capture the arsenal at Poznan

Philippines

MacArthur decides to contain the Japanese in northern Luzon while the army concentrated on Manila

Pacific

Australian troops land on New Britain

Greece

EAM agrees to amnesty terms.



5th Marine Division (United States)

The 5th Marine Division was a United States Marine Corps ground combat division which was activated on 11 November 1943 (officially activated on 21 January 1944) at Camp Pendleton, California during World War II. The 5th Division saw its first combat action during the Battle of Iwo Jima in 1945 where it sustained the highest number of casualties of the three Marine divisions of the V Amphibious Corps (invasion force). The 5th Division was to be part of the planned invasion of the Japan homeland before Japan surrendered. Assault troops of the 5th Division were included in the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to the V Amphibious Corps for extraordinary heroism on Iwo Jima from 19 to 28 February 1945. The 5th Division was deactivated on 5 February 1946.

The 5th Division was ordered to be reactivated on 1 March 1966 at Camp Pendleton, California, during the Vietnam War. The division, beginning with the reactivation of Regimental Landing Team 26 (RLT 26), was expected to be fully manned within one year the 5th Division was never in command of the 26th Marine Regiment (26th Marines) in the war. In December, all three infantry battalions of the 26th Marines were fighting in Vietnam attached to the 3rd Marine Division. By June 1967, the 5th Division was ready to deploy anywhere. It was never intended that the 5th Division would go overseas. It was a force in readiness. But in February 1968, General William C. Westmoreland, U.S. Army, commander of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, asked for help because of the all-out Communist Tet Offensive. The 27th Marine Regiment (27th Marines), 5th Marine Division, was airlifted out on 48 hours' notice, with 3,700 Marines. In September, it became the first major combat unit to come home from the Vietnam War. The 5th Marine Division formally deactivated on 26 November 1969.


File #340: "The Observer No. 5 February, 1945.pdf"

SEARCH AND
RESCUE MISSIONS
All of us have heard an occasional but
closeted remark about CAP Search and
Rescue Missions but few of us kcow much
about them except that they are for qualified Pilots only and naturally constitute one
of the active duty services of CAP for the
Army Air Force.
From Commander Kaufmann, who participated in such a Mission recently comes
the following story:
In the past many Pilots of this, and perhaps other Squadrons have been criticizing
Search and Rescue Operations for seemingly calling the same personnel on most
of the Missions. We have felt that we as
Pilots were qualified and willing to contribute our time and experience along with
those who have been called over and over
on the Missions in the past, and could see no
reason for being excluded.
One has but to go on duty once to apprec i a t e t h e r e a s o n f o r a l l t h i s . C a p t a i n S N O W,
W i n g O p e r a t i o n s O f fi c e r, a n d h i s a b l e a s sistant Lt. ZECHEL have the operations
of these Missions so completely under control that it would be impossible for even
the most skeptical to doubt their judgement.
The first impression the novice Rescue
Pilot will receive is the systematic plotting
of rescue areas, the complete control of
out-going and incoming Aircraft and the
fact that operations has the situation firmly
in hand. They know where every pilot is
at all times, when he is over-due, what
area has been searched, how well it has been
searched, they see to it that Mess and Quart e r s a r e a r r a n g e d f o r, t h e g a s o l i n e i s o n
hand and that your aircraft is in good
flying condition. What is more important
they know the respective abilities o[ every
pilot.
The last is extremely important. When
the novice first enters an Army Base he is
under the impression that Operations will
assign him an aircraft and tell him to go
out and search. He will soon realize that
such is not the case.
On my first Mission I had the good fortune to be assigned to Lt. PIERCE as an
O b s e r v e r. I w a s p e r m i t t e d t o fl y t h e a i r c r a f t
for nearly one hour swaying in and out of
canyon at what appeared to me, a recklessly low altitude. When Lt. PIERCE took
C O N T I N U E D O N PA G E

CIVIL AIR PATROL
NUMBER FIVE

oriel Johnson Reviews 1st 6mup

R e v i e w i n g O f fi c e r s a t t h e r e v i e w f o r C o l o n e l E A R L J O H N S O N , N a t i o n a l C o m m a n d e r,
are, Left to Right: Colonel JOHNSON, Lt. Colonel BERTRAND RHINE, Califonia
W i n g C o m m a n d e r, L t . C o l o n e l S M E T H I L L , C o m m a n d e r C o l o r a d o W i n g , a n d M a j o r
RICHARD DICK, Commander 1st Group, California Wing.

O n S u n d a y, F e b r u a r y 2 5 , t h e L o s A n g e l e s
Group was honored by a visit from the
Civil Air Patrol National Commander Colonel EARLE JOHNSON.
Vi s i t i n g W i n g C o m m a n d e r s w e r e L t . C o l .
BEER, Commander of the Arizona Wing
and Lt. Col. SMETHILL, Commander of
the Colorado Wing.
Approximately ioo senior officers representing 47 Squadrons of the California Wing
were present.
Cadets from I st group and nearby Squadrons assembled and formed on the drill field.
The Cadets of Los Angeles Squadron 3 gave
an exhibition of the drill that won them the
Efficiency award during the last Cadet competition drill.
At the completion of the Cadet drill, the
officers retired to Squadron Five's Canteen
f o r a b u ff e t d i n n e r, a f t e r w h i c h a b u s i n e s s
meeting was held in the Fairfax High School
Auditorium during which Colonel JOHNSON discussed present and future activities
of the Civil Air Patrol.

AIRPORT SURVEY
A survey of Los Angeles County is being
conducted by units of I st Group and Santa
Moniea Squadrons for the purpose of mapping existing airports and surveying undev e l o p e d a r e a s o ff e r i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s a s a i r ports or flight strips.
Personnel that will be needed to accomplish this work includes: Pilots, Observers,
Crew chiefs, Mapmakers, Surveyors, ArchiPhotogt e c t s , Tr a f fi c C o n t r o l P l a n n e r s ,
raphers, Me(eorologists and Clerks.
Anyone who has not already indicated a
desire to perform the types of work mentioned but who has time and ability to do
such, should leave his name with the Operat i o n s O f fi c e r, L t . H E S S E L D E N Z .

BE A GOOD MEMBER . . .
PAY YOUR DUES
WEAR YOUR UNIFORM
ATTEND MEETINGS

over my first lesson in Rescue Flying began.
I must admit he gave me many an anxious
moment but along with that, absolute confidence in his ability and mastery of the
aircraft in narrow canyons, taking advantage of every up and downdraft and cove r i n g e v e r y i n c h o f t h e t e r r a i n t h o r o u g h l y.
When I got back to the Base I was convinced that I had much to learn. The good
natured way which the "experts" analyzed
my shortcomings and the well meant suggestions only added to my opinion of the
men who have flown over a thousand hours
of Rescue work without a mishap.
My second assignment took me to another Base. When I arrived, all arrangements had already been made and we were
ready to operate. This time I was assigned
t o L t . H A S E Y, a n o l d - t i m e r, w h o h a d fl o w n
the anti-submarine Patrol. Again I gained
a great deal of experience from the cool,
methodic pilot.
L T. L O U I S J . P E T R I T Z
We o f S q u a d r o n 5 a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o u d
of our Medical Officer, Lt. LOUIS J.
P E T R I T Z . A s M e d i c a l O f fi c e r, h e i s u n beatable in his willingness to work and
serve, as a man, the smiling and evercheerful Doctor is perhaps one of the most
l i k e d m e m b e r s o f t h e S t a ff .
D r. P E T R I T Z w a s b o r n a t A n a c o n d a ,
M o n t a n a , o n t h e 1 5 t h d a y o f J a n u a r y. H e
a t t e n d e d H o l y C r o s s A c a d e m y, g r a d u a t i n g
with an AB. From I9I4 to I918 he studied
M e d i c i n e a t N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y, s t o p ping only long enough to serve with the
Medical Corps of the Army during the latt e r p e r i o d o f Wo r l d Wa r I .
After serving the inevitable internship at
t h e C o o k C o u n t y H o s p i t a l i n C h i c a g o , D r.
PETRITZ became an Instructor in Clinical Surgery at the Medical School of the
University of Chicago, later serving in the
same capacity at the Post Graduate Hosp i t a l i n t h e s a m e C i t y.
From z92o to I922 he was associated as
Field Director with the Rockefeller Foundation later becoming Director of Malaria
Research and a member of the National
Malaria Committee, until i93z.
Some time later the enterprising Doctor
became the owner of the Lincoln Hospital
at Rochele, Ill., and served in the capacity
of Chief Surgeon there until his departure
to California.
A p p a r e n t l y D r. P E T R I T Z r e a l i z e d t h a t
there were other degrees available, so he
promptly enrolled at Loyola University to
add an LL.B. to the A.B. and M.D. he already possessed.
During all this busy career Lt. PETRITZ
found time to take up flying. He received
his Pilot's License in I929, was an Aircraft
Owner until the war grounded him and has
today nearly 500 hours of time to his
credit.

On the third day I flew an Observer
with Lt. HUGHES, and learned about contours, rechecks and downdrafts.
Finally on my fourth day I was assigned
a s P i l o t w i t h a n e w c o m e r a s m y O b s e r v e r.
Every inch of mountain searched during
that day was certainly done the way
PIERCE, HUGHES or HASEY would have
done it and I for one am confident that
it would not have been done efficiently without their coaching and patience.
One need go on only one Mission to
appreciate the reason for having these oldt i m e r s l i k e , S N O W , Z E C H I E L , H E A S E Y,
H U G H E S , E D W I T T, W E I D N E R a n d
PIERCE on hand. For it is their experience
and coaching that will keep the Search
Missions assigned to this Wing on the safe
and thorough basisit has been up to date.
We feel particularly fortunate in having
a g o o d M e d i c a l O f fi c e r, b u t a r e e q u a l l y
proud of his background as a Pilot and his
ability to understand Pilots.
The Cadets on the other hand are being
s e r v e d d u a l l y, b y r e c e i v i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e x amination from the Doctor and spending
practically every weekend on orientation
Flights with the ever-ready Medical Officer
at the controls.
Lt. PETRITZ is presently attached as
Physician and Surgeon to the Los Angeles
Fire Department.
He is married to a very lovely lady who
is known to most of us for her pleasing
smile and even more pleasing voice.
His favorite hobbies are, flying, fishing,
skiing and hunting, not to mention spending
his well-earned rest at Squadron Headquarters as Medico of this Unit.

The latest group to receive one year
service ribbons consisted of J. J. MALONEY,
H . H E R Z B E R G , a n d S . P E T T Y.

S / S G T. G E O R G E C R I S P I N
D i d y o u s e c t h a t b l a c k e y e ! T h i s C . A . P.
Assistant Operations Officer will leave quite
an impression on everyone with a shiner like
that.
Ye s , t h a t 6 f t .

i n . G E O R G E C R I S P I N ,
born in the "bug-eye" state (Ohio to you)
is really one to cause confusion.
GEORGE, who is a section Leader under
Lt. HESSELDENZ of Flight "B," was born
in Cincinnati on June 4, I915.
His education in the little two-story
wooden school house in Cummington, Kent u c k y, r a n a s h i g h a s t h e ? g r a d e .
We fi n d M r. C R I S P I N h a s b e e n i n t e r ested in flying since he saw his first airp l a n e i n t h e s k y. H e d i d n o t h i n g a b o u t h i s
interest in flying until he joined th:

Civil
Air Patrol in June I944. Since then he has
flown in the club ship, Cubs and Luscombes
a t Va i l F i e l d a n d C u l v e r C i t y A i r p o r t .
JUNIOR, his nickname from the Comm a n d e r, s a y s h e r e a l l y f e l t fi n e o n h i s fi r s t
flight in a plane. One of these days he
hopes to have one of his own, but will have
to be satisfied with a motorcycle for the
present.
During the week when he is not at CAP
headquarters, GEORGE works for the Santa
Fe Railway where he is an engine foreman.
Sports seem to be quite popular with
GEORGE. He is particularly fond of bowli n g , h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g a n d a r c h e r y.
GEORGE is an attentive member of the
CAP and has hopes of becoming a good
fl y e r . To t h e m e m b e r s h i p G E O R G E i s
k n o w n a s t h e o n e - m a n v o l u n t e e r. H e h a s
volunteered for more extra-curricular work
than any other squad of men.

Trophy Awarded Squadron Five

Staff Sergeant BAILEY flew his Luscombe from a base in Bakersfield. The
weather was so rough at times that dirt
from the floor board filled the cabin. We
suggest that " H A P " c l e a n o u t h i s s h i p
occasionally.
Incidentally "HAP" is returning to school
in Berkeley next month. We all wish him
the best of luck.

FLIGHT D
A meeting of all Flight "D" personnel
v : a s h e l d a t W / O B E T T Y D E WA R ' S h o m e
We d n e s d a y, 2 I F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 5 .
One of the highlights of the meet:ng was
the appointment of officers within the
Flight to correspond to the maning table
set up for the Squadron. This procedure is
meant to acquaint the members of the
Flight with the functions of the various offleers of the Squadron and give them a more
active position in the Flight. The following
members were appointed to the Flight "D"
Staff :

Corporal MARGARET SHERO and Staff Sergeant RICHARD COE present 2nd place
cup they wont in bombing competition to Commander KAUFMANN for the Squadron.

FLIGHT .
The increased noise level in the home of
Pilot RALPH BEAL, of Flight "A," is due
to the recent arrival of a son, RICHARD
ALLEN BEAL. The date of arrival was none
other than the memorable February I2,
birth date of Abraham Lincoln. Data on the
model is still restricted but the following
information was obtained from a special
press release :
Gross Weight . Slightly over six pounds
Consumption . ? gallons per hour
Take off . Frequent
Climb . Still restricted
Range . H i g h " C " ( F o r t i s s i m o )
Members of Flight "A" who received
their one year service ribbons during the
p a s t m o n t h w e r e : A c t i n g W / O M A L O N E Y,
Sgt. HERZBERG, Sgt. SNYDER and Instructor DANIELSON.
"Ouch"-Flight "A" had but eleven members present at the parade grounds
last
S u n d a y. L e t ' s s t e p t h i s a t t e n d a n c e u p !
We saw Lt. PERNER hobble into the
canteen with a sprained ankle. Who handles
the "Purple Hearts"?
We have noticed quite a few Flight "A"
members attending the Commercial classes.
This instruction is exceptionally valuable
and is greatly appreciated by us all.

D r. S O R E N S O N a n d S g t . S N Y D E R a r e
getting quite a kick flying the Piper Cruiser
these days.

FLIGHT (B .
W/O FRANK MARRA, of Flight "B"
is on active duty service with the CAP tow
target unit NO. 7, 32nd Army Air Forces
BASG Unit and is stationed at the Grand
C e n t r a l A i r Te r m i n a l , B u r b a n k , C a l i f o r n i a .
It is his duty to tow a target while it is
fired upon by Anti Aircraft Guns and fighter
aircraft. He claims that at times the target
is cut loose from the 12oo foot tow cable.
Ah, the excitement and thrills. One of the
most peculiar thrills is when the fighter
planes come diving in to score a kill on
the target.
MARRA has about completed the arrangements for us to have the use of the
Fairfax High School Gymnasium where he
plans to teach ambitious CAP members the
secrets of Jiu-Jitsu.
This flight wishes to report that two of
its members were kept busy with active duty
during the past month.
W/O HAL GREINETZ, Squadron Eng i n e e r i n g O f fi c e r, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e a r c h
mission flying out of "War Eagle Field."
During one of his flights from this base,
GREINETZ experienced such rough air
that he still doesn't know which end is up.
At one time the plane he was flying
dropped 7ooo feet to 4ooo feet in "snap"
just that much time.

P v t . J . AT K I N S . . . . . . . . . .I n t e l l i g e n c e O f fi c e r
" Pvt. N. TOLIN . Finance Officer
S / S g t . G . W H I T E _ Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n O f fi c e r
Pvt. D. WARNE . A d j u t a n t
P v t . V. A N D R E W S . . . . . . . . Personnel Officer
S g t . H . M U R R AY. . . . P h o t o g r a p h i c O f fi c e r
Pvt. G. POSTRAMA. Inspection Officer
Pvt. B. DAHMKE . Flight Reporter
Assistant Flight Leader B. SEARLES and
S g t . H . M U R R AY w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o m a k e
a book with pictures of all key personnel in
the Squadron. This book will be shown to
all new members assigned to Flight "D" to
familiarize them with the people and their
positions in the Squadron.

FLIGHT E .
We're pointing with pride to the brand
new commission presented to Assistant
Flight Leader ALLENE TURNBOUGH.
W / O T U R N B O U G H , i n c i d e n t a l l y, c a n
make with some very fine "hanger-flying"
as a result of her first flying lesson. We
can't believe that the gleam in her eye,
when she mentions the trip, is just the result of learning the fundamentals of bank
and turn, unless there were some maneuvers
we haven't heard about.
If W/O JACKIE MYHAND appears to
be walking with her head in the clouds, it's
because she and her husband have been
s p e n d i n g h i s 3 o - d a y f u r l o u g h i n P i n e B l u ff ,
Arkansas. Back from the Battle of the
Philippines with a ribbon and a star (to
cite just one of the major engagements he
h a s s e e n ) , S i g n a l m a n i s t / C l a s s W. H . M YHAND received a much deserved furlough
while his ship is in for repairs.

NEW MFMBERS
Newcomers to the Squadron during the
m o n t h o f F e b r u a r y w e r e : E . C A R LT O N ,

H i m m e l ! Ve i s s r a i d e d ! O n e r e a s o n a b l y
quiet evening a woman was intently studying some paintings on display in an art
store window when the stillness was shattered by the surprising but unintelligent
shout, "ACHTUNG, FORWARTZ,
MARSCH !"

J . G R U S S , B . D A H M K E , J . AT K I N S , G .
W A R N E R , N . O R M A LY E S , W. N O V I C K ,
S. NOVICK, M. ARTHUR, A. BROMF I E L D , D . B O W E R , M . B A S L E Y, J . R O B ERTS, D. ANDERSON, E. FORD, M.
BROWDER.

Looking around she did as perfect a
double take as any Hollywood director
w o u l d e x p e c t f r o m a n y a c t o r. T h e r e a s o n
was that there, in plain sight, were two perfectly uniformed and heavily armed Nazis
g o o s e s t e p p i n g d o w n M e l r o s e Av e n u e a n d
headed s t r a i g h t f o r t h e F a i r f a x H i g h
School.
Th

s reporter was unable to make anything of her ineoherent mumbling. The best
statement to be obtained after some two
hours of grueling interviewing was, "Nazis!
High Command kidding! Men from Mars!
Invaded! My G--, I mean Heavens!
W h e r e ' s m y c h i l d ? ! H e a d f o r t h e h i l l s ! We
loused the war !"

APPOINTMENTS
February was a particularly good month
for members being given command and
s t a ff a s s i g m n e n t s . T h o s e a p p o i n t e d w e r e :
W/O J. MYHAND to Leader of Flight
"E," W/O B. DEWAR to Leader of Flight
"D," D. CURTIS to Assistant Flight Leader
of Flight "B," B. SEARLES to Assistant
Leader of Flight "D," M. TURNBOUGH
t o A s s i s t a n t L e a d e r o f F l i g h t " E , " W.
B O N N E Y t o A s s i s t a n t Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n O f fl e e r, L . C R I S P I N t o A s s i s t a n t Tr a i n i n g O f fl e e r, P. S H A W t o I n s t r u c t o r.

PROMOTIONS
Promotions made during the month of
F e b r u a r y i n c l u d e d : To P r i v a t e F i r s t C l a s s :
D . M . A D A M T H W A I T E , R . D O T Y, J . P.
C O O N E Y, W . M . E L L I O T, N . H E N N I N G SEN, E. EAMES, R. THEDKA, C.
W A R N E , D . V O N D R A K S A . To C o r p o r a l :
W . A R F O R D . To S e r g e a n t : H . R Y K E R ,
L . C R I S P I N , D . W H I T C H U R C H . To S t a f f
Sergeant: R. COE, L. RIGGS, G. CRISPIN, M. GROSS.

L. J. Brubaker
General Manager

Colonel JOHNSON and Captain KAUFMANN seem to he discussing something
quite interesting at the dinner given at
Squadron Five Headquarters following
the review in honor of Colonel Johnson.
To d a t e t h e c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e b e e n a u thorized are (1) the removal of the red
shoulder straps, (2) the removal of the red
piping on the overseas caps, and (3) the
change of non-commissioned officer's chevrons from those with red background to
those with the Army regulation black background.

It is possible that by all this she meant
that someone was kidding the high command and that we, not that Germans had
been invaded. Her last statement was most
likely meant to mean, "We've lost, so get
the kids and hit for tall timber !"
The fact is that two of our cadets had
been outfitted in the very latest thing in
Nazi sniper suits in order to pull a joke on
Captain KAUFMANN as he was explaining
the recent changes in the Civil Air Patrol
uniform.

At the March Dance given by the Squadron the Cadets will be the hosts to the
adult members.
A surprise program is in store for the
S q u a d r o n . T H I S I S A P R O G R A M T H AT
NO ONE CAN AFFORD TO MISS!

Asst. General Manager
M. C. Foss

18 fo I Odds in your favor
One Stop in our modern service depar÷ment affords you the services of these eighteen complete
departments:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Motor Repairs
Chassis
Brake Service
Front Axle Alignment
Wheel Balancing
Steering Service

Ti r e R e p a i r s
Wa s h i n g
Polishing
Lubrication
Light Adjustment
M o t o r Tu n e - u p

Wr e c k e r S e r v i c e
Body Repairs
Fender Repairs
Painting
Upholstery Repairs
Seat Covers

WE BUY AND SELL USED CARS
N E W C A R S A N D T R U C K S N O W AVA I L A B L E

WILCOX CHEVROLET CO.
The Biggest Used Car Dealer in the Harbor Area
SO. CALIFORNIA AUTOMOBILE CLUB SERVICE
RANDALL MOTOR CLUB SERVICE
Phone: Long Beach 641543 or Wilmington 2705
AL BORING, Service Manager


World War II Today: February 5

1940
British and French governments agree to land an expeditionary force in northern Norway without regard for Norway’s neutrality in order to aide Finland, although it was never carried out.

First sinking of a U-boat by a lone British destroyer: in convoy OA-84 off Land’s End, HMS Antelope sinks U-41.

1941
An advanced column of armoured cars from the 7th Armoured Division intercept the Italian retreat about 70 miles south of Benghazi.

Battle of Beda Fomm begins: British and Australian troops encircle bulk of Italian army in Libya.

US Navy designates new class of ship—the auxiliary aircraft vessel (AVG), later known as escort carriers—able to be constructed quickly on merchant ship hulls.

1942
First US C-47 cargo plane lost in combat, strafed by Zeros on Bathurst Island, Australia.

Japanese begin bombarding Singapore from Malaya.

US National Naval Medical Center is established in Bethesda, MD.

US Far East Air Force renamed Fifth Air Force Caribbean AF renamed Sixth AF Hawaiian AF renamed Seventh AF Alaskan AF renamed Eleventh AF.

1943
Mussolini sacks his son-in-law, Count Ciano from Foreign Ministry and takes control himself.

1944
U.S. troops reach the outskirts of Cassino, but are repulsed.

The ‘Chindits’ begin moving towards Indaw, 100 miles behind the Japanese lines in Burma.

1945
Red Army troops approach Elbing and Marienburg in East Prussia.

RAF balloon command to be disbanded as the air raid threat lessens. 278 V1’s have been claimed by balloons.

US Seventh and French Armies link, splitting the Colmar pocket in France.

MacArthur orders a containment in the northern Philippines, as the main effort is directed to the capture of Manila. The Australians land on the Japanese stronghold of New Britain, East of New Guinea.


Mass Action

From Labor Action, Vol. IX No. 6, 5 February 1945, p.ق.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

DETROIT – Aside from the snow and standing in line to get one package of some unknown brand of cigarettes, Detroit seems to be concerned mainly with the no-strike pledge referendum, the affair at the plant of the United States Rubber Co. and the appointment of Henry Wallace as Secretary of Commerce.

WLB Aids Dalrymple

The latest outrage in the scandalous anti-union move instituted by Sherman Dalrymple, president of the United Rubber Workers, in the U.S. Rubber affair, is the decree of the WLB that the company must check off the $12.50 fine imposed by the stupid and reactionary Dalrymple But also $6.00 which reinstates the men in the union. This is so fantastic as to be unbelievable,

The company refused to pull the cards of the men because, it is obvious, with the rubber “shortage” it was necessary to retain every man at work. This refusal of the company backed the blunderheaded Dalrymple up against the wall. He had no way to get at these men. Then the WLB came to his aid and ordered the company to withhold the money and hand it over to Dalrymple. Since the WLB also is interested in the rubber “shortage” and in doing a favor for friend Dalrymple, this little board of capitalists, stooges (“public” members), and labor captives takes a step to keep the men in good standing in the United Rubber Workers.

The situation is complicated by the fact that some of the men are now members of the Mechanics Educational Society (AFL) and the UAW. This means that three unions have members in this plant, with the contract held by the URW. It also means that the workers there have a three-way fight on their hands: against the company, Dalrymple and the WLB.

The whole matter could have been handled far better and more effectively if in the beginning these men, who were victimized by the unspeakable Dalrymple, had paid the fines under protest and called on the international membership to come to their aid for an all-out and unrelenting struggle against Dalrymple inside the URW. They will get nowhere blundering off into the MESA and the paper AFL union.

It is certainly not too late to begin now to pick up the broken bits and organize throughout the international for Dalrymple’s scalp. At the next convention he should be kicked out without ceremony, and without compromise. Anyone who gives Dalrymple any support whatsoever must be shown that such a position means destroying the union.

There is plenty of time to organize for throwing out Dalrymple and his whole gang. These workers should so quietly and efficiently about the business of organizing this campaign. Every decent and militant worker throughout the country should be drawn in. To defeat Dalrymple means to have more votes at the convention than can be mustered by this reactionary and ignorant bureaucrat. The way to get those votes is to begin now so that the men elected to the convention are committed to a decent, democratic and militant union program. Any man committed to such a program will never support Dalrymple. At the same time workers in the URW committed to this program will remain in the URW and carry on the struggle against Dalrymple.

Thomas, No-Strike Pledge

There is some talk in the press reports from New Orleans that R.J. Thomas has or is in the process of changing his position on the no-strike pledge. The Detroit Free Press reported that Thomas made the statement at a press conference that he is strongly in favor of retaining the no-strike pledge today but that he could not be sure today what his position will be at the end of the war with Germany.

Addes remains for the pledge without reservation or without making any distinction between the war against Germany or the war against Japan Reuther has some queer position of maintaining the pledge for the war industries but not for the non-war industries.

There is really no difference between Thomas, Addes. and Reuther on the no-strike pledge. All three of them are for the maintenance of the pledge and for bowing low before Roosevelt and the capitalist bosses. They are not in full agreement as to how the belly-crawling shall be done but all three of them are openly pledged to Roosevelt’s program of keeping the working class down on its knees.

Reuther’s talk about war industries and non-war industries is pure fakery. All industries are war industries today. War is a national and international phenomenon. The war is an activity of capitalist society as a whole. The whole ruling class – bond-holders, the government, manufacturers of war goods and manufacturers of non-war goods – participate in the war as a class and profit as a class.

The whole working class is affected by the war, that part of it in the war industries and that part in other occupations. Being affected by the war is not determined by such considerations as whether or not one is working on tanks or nursing bottles. Also, one’s attitude cannot be determined by such considerations. In time of war, whether or not one gives a no-strike pledge, supports such a pledge or abides by it, should be determined by what one decides as to the kind of war it is and the effect the pledge has on the welfare of the unions and the working class.

If we take only the effects of the pledge on the welfare of labor, as is already known by the workers out of their own experience, there is enough to win every worker against this pledge and induce every UAW rank and file member to vote against it in the referendum.

Even a worker who is gullible enough to believe the capitalists’ tale about fighting for democracy will not fail to understand that the ruling class and its government has demonstrated in practice that it is not a war for democracy.

As the war proceeds, democracy is more and more curtailed. What is democratic about the National Service Act, in which it is proposed to fine any worker as much as $10,000 if he refuses to remain in or go into a factory to toil and produce profits for an exploiting capitalist employer?

Every time a labor convention reaffirms the no-strike pledge Roosevelt and his government follow through with another and more reactionary proposal smelling of totalitarianism. While labor sleeps and amid the bleatings of Philip Murray, the artful dodging of Reuther, the mush-headed throbbing of Thomas and the Stalinist trickery of Addes, Roosevelt feels his way slyly toward a two-point post-war program for the working class: conscription for a post-war imperialist army and conscription for the factories of the capitalist employers.


Operation Cornflakes

On February 5, 1945, the US began a secret operation to overthrow Hitler with postage stamps.

By the early months of 1945, the world had been at war for over three years. Germany appeared to be nearing defeat, but American casualties were mounting. An idea was hatched – a brilliant plan to bring down the Nazi government. The weapon chosen to defeat Hitler – postage stamps!

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) – an intelligence agency and forerunner of today’s CIA – was formed during World War II. Throughout the war, one of its most effective tools was propaganda aimed at demoralizing the German people, which OSS officials hoped would spark a revolt against the Nazis.

However, getting the propaganda into the hands of every day Germans was challenging. The OSS had dropped leaflets from the air, but wind, rain, and other factors often destroyed the materials before they reached the intended audience.

Germany #506-14 – Genuine used Germany stamps issued between 1941 and 1944.

Then a bold plan developed – use Nazi government workers to distribute misinformation to their citizens via their own postal service. If effective, it would have a powerful psychological effect on the German people.

To launch the operation, OSS operatives quizzed German POWs who had been postal workers to learn even the smallest details about the mail service. Stamp samples, cancellations, mail sacks, and envelopes were studied. Two million mailing addresses were gathered and envelopes were created using legitimate businesses as return addresses. Propaganda pieces were printed and special bombs were produced to carry mailbags. A newspaper entitled Das Neue Deutschland, which claimed to be printed by an opposition group in Germany, was produced to urge fellow Germans to join the movement.

Germany #528-29 picture Hitler and the Storm Trooper emblem.

Most importantly, stamps had to be produced. The then-current 6pf and 12pf German stamps picturing Adolf Hitler were forged for use on covers. Another version of the 12pf stamp was also printed with an image of Hitler’s skull and the inscription “Futsches Reich” (Ruined Empire). These stamps were included in the envelopes along with other anti-Nazi propaganda pieces.

Forgeries produced by the US for Operation Cornflakes. We don’t have any available right now, but you can compare these to the genuine stamps offered in this article.

To smuggle the stamps into Germany, OSS officials planned to bomb mail trains and drop mailbags near the wreckage. By using the specially designed bombs, OSS operatives hoped to mimic realistic damage caused by bombs without destroying the propaganda pieces.

Because most mail was delivered very early in the morning, as Germans were sitting down for breakfast, the scheme was dubbed “Operation Cornflakes.” The operation launched on February 5, 1945. Allied planes dropped bombs on a mail train bound for Linz, Hitler’s childhood home. Bags filled with almost 3,000 propaganda pieces were then dropped into the wreckage, where they mixed with actual German mail sacks. They were later salvaged by German authorities and delivered as usual.

Item #M8029 – Collection of 490 German Third Reich stamps.

Over a three-month period, 20 missions were flown, with 320 fake mailbags dropped – about 96,000 propaganda pieces in all. But a mistake was made during the March 16 air raid. After the phony mail was collected from the wreckage, a German clerk noticed a misspelling in one of the return addresses. “Wiener Giro-und Kassenverein,” a central securities deposit, had been misspelled “Wiener Giro-und Cassenverein.” When the same error was found on several other pieces of mail, German officials opened the envelopes and discovered the propaganda.

Germany #512//23 – Genuine used Germany stamps from the era.

Later questioned about the success of Operation Cornflakes, some 10,000 German deserters and POWs said they had been affected by the campaign. We know the raids taxed the Nazi’s by burdening their postal service and destroying mail routes.


5 February 1945 - History

THE WESTERN TIDE OF EMIGRATION

From the Kansas City (Mo.) Enterprise, May 9, 1857.

     You can see the emigrant from every State eastof the Mississippi, from Maine to Louisiana, and from the wild rice swamps of thefrozen North to cultivated rice fields of the far South-their peculiar habits asdistinctly marked as their geographical localities. The real Western man isthere, self reliant and taciturn-he asks no questions, for he knows exactly whatto do he has no need of "Kansas Guides" or tickets to agents "who will tell himwhere to go, and where to settle" he has been "through the mill," keeps his owncounsel and goes his own road. He knows exactly what prairie is worth, and whattimber will suffice, and if there is a good "claim" to be found the Western manhas it before the Eastern man gets through asking questions of the "man that hewas recommended to." Then you find the Southwestern man: he wants to know allabout the winters, the grass, and the best portions for stock raising. The manfrom the Middle States, as they were once called, is on the look out for somepoint where he can raise wheat, put up a shop, and manufacture or run machinery.The man from the Eastern Slave States wants to know "how the law is," or what"chance for a physician." Over all these the Western man has the advantage, andsecures the prize while others are inquiring where it is.

     Side by side with this population pressing uponus from the East, are seen the men of the Far West, who come to Kansas City astheir East. There is the Indian trader from the Rocky mountains, from theYellowstone, the country beyond Laramie, and the pleasant valleys lying towardthe Great Salt Lake-his almost Indian complexion and moccasins would deceive youinto the belief that he was an aborigine. . . . He knows what life on thefrontier is, and speaks as a prophet. [You will see him shake hands with the]"mountaineer," men who have made the vast country lying West of the Mississippiand stretching to the Pacific their home. . . . [The mountaineer] is the mailcarrier of all that vast region and the minister plenipotentiary between allportions of that wild and secluded country. [You next see the trader of theSouthwest] . . . from Santa Fe and the Mexican States beyond. He makes hissemi-annual visits with the regularity of the seasons themselves. . . . It is acurious mixture of races that [carries on this trade]. Intermingled with allclasses are . . . the pure and untainted Indian. . . . [When one reflects that]this tide is sweeping out through the valley of the Kansas, . . . some idea maybe gained of the present and future commerce of this "city of the plains."

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 311

"SOCIETY" AS COVERED BY THE IRREPRESSIBLE SOL.MILLER

From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, November 4, 1858.

     STARTLING NEW--ELOPEMENT!-Friday is supposed tobe an unlucky day. Such it has proven for White Cloud. On Friday last, thiscommunity was startled by the announcement that the pride of the town, the gem ofthe Missouri, the cynosure of admiring eyes, had been abducted-the accomplishedand peerless Julia Ann Pryor had eloped!

     The circumstances were these: During the pastsummer, a young man from the land of steady nutmegs and wooden habits, wasengaged in working on the grade, in this place. His sturdy industry, civildeportment, and economical disposition, came under the notice of the gentle JuliaAnn, and were a sure passport to her affections. And he, carrying beneath a roughexterior, a soul that could appreciate the beautiful, the virtuous, and the good,soon yielded his heart to the charmer. They met, he proposed, and was accepted.The grade at length was finished, and he was compelled to look elsewhere foremployment. But how could he leave his Julia Ann? He could not-and he determinedthat he would not. And now they made a false step, which, with due consideration,their high sense of honor would have revolted against. They did not ask theconsent of the maiden's parents. But he was poor, and perhaps had misgivings-hecould not bear to think of the dreadful consequences of a refusal from thearistocratic father and mother. So they determined, in the language of theimmortal poet, Anonymous, to

"Slide, like the tail of a greased hog from the paws of a fatDutchman!"

     On Friday morning they took their flight, amidthe chilling rain and howling wind. The robbed parents soon learned of theirloss, and were forthwith plunged into

"That grief which knows no comfort."

     But rage soon sought company with grief, in thefather's breast-rage, because he had been robbed of that which would have beengiven for the asking. The lion of his nature was aroused-that lion nature whichhad made his name feared among the hills of Monroe County, Ohio. Seizing hisfists, he started in pursuit of the fugitives, and hunted in every spot wherethey could not be found, until he was compelled to give up in despair. He saysthat what works him up the worst, is the fact that the fellow came to him, theevening before, and asked for some hay to feed his cattle, but took his daughterwithout asking for her.

     In the meantime, the fugitives were wanderingabout town, seeking, not whom they might devour, but whom they might get tofasten them together. At length they entered Van Doren's store, where they ranafoul of Squire Briggs, whom they requested to unite them in the holy bonds of"ma-trim-ony." He consented, and the expectant bridegroom "shelled out" thelawful fee of $1.50, which the squire took. He then meditated upon the subject.He had misgivings as to whether the would-be bride was of legal age and he alsoconsidered that the time might soon come, when some indiscreet youth would stealone of his daughters, and he would think very unkindly of any justice who shouldmarry them. These considerations (especially the former) he could not get overnor creep under, so he handed back the fee, regardless of the entreaties of theyoung couple, and refused to perform upon that particular occasion.

312 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     Here was a predicament. The fact is, the couplecould not stand it much longerand they feared, that if they remained in this suspense, soon "Disappointment,like a big green tobacco worm, would prey upon their damask cheeks,"(Shakespeare,) and they therefore contracted their "puckering strings," andcontinued their "pursuit of matrimony under difficulties." Thus they wandered outto Padonia, where they hunted up Squire Winslow, who, being a kindhearted man,could not bear to behold their misery, and quickly tied them into a knot. . ..

     Thus endeth this happy and melancholystory-happy, because two loving hearts havefound the Eden of bliss melancholy, because a home has been made desolate, bythe loss of its hope and joy, and an entire community has been left, in thelanguage of still another illustrious poet, to

LEAVENWORTH'S FANCY DRESS BALL OF 1859

From The Daily Times, Leavenworth, March 4,1859.

     The Friday-Evening Coteries end to-night with aFancy Dress-Ball. The series havebeen of an exceedingly agreeable nature. They have called out the beauty andgrace of Leavenworth, and given to the Fridays of each week a particular charm.But to-night will eclipse them all-to-night Stockton's Hall will be crowded withan array which no language can paint: for the widest range and latitude in thematter of dress, will not only be allowed, but expected and every conceivablestyle and costume may be anticipated. We may expect the amply-folding robe, withmodest clasp, and zone on the bosom the braided hair or veiled head fashionsalike of the wife of a Phocian, the mistress of an Alcibiades or perhaps shortskirts with hardened vest, and head buckled in gold or silver or the ironbodice, stiff farthingale and spiral coiffure or dresses more modern andmodest-of Italian flower-girls, or French grisettes, or Circassian slaves, or thelassies of our own and our mother land. In fact, there's no end to the rangefor,

     In fact, we don't know but what our goodlyladies propose "making up" so as torender themselves incog. The lean will probably fashion themselves after theproportions of Reuben's Graces, none of which could possibly have weighed lessthan 200 lbs. avoirdupois.

     And as far as the gentlemen are concerned, whatmay we not expect? Highlanders,and knights, and kings and courtiers, and bandits, (of the genteel sort,) andwarriors and buffoons and harlequins and minstrels, with togas, and plumes, androbes, and sashes, and gowns, and wigs, and swords, and daggers, and plumes, andfeathers, and trunk hose, and scarlet coats,-a la Voltaire,-and bare throats,-ala Byron. . .

     Well-on with the dance! We will not regret whenevening comes and the strangecompany meet, arrayed in all their plumes, to dance to the merrie music. We shallbe on hand in the garb of an editor-a disguise which needs no inquisitive eye topierce, and which generally brings to mind an idea of

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 313

unappreciated merit and ungrateful Republics. And we shall watch those daintyextremities of which Herrick so daintily sings.

     So-Ahoy! for the hall and the dance to-night!What matters mud or rain? Brighthearts, and dazzling robes, and lighted rooms, and stirring strains, will laughthe elements to scorn, and circle to-night with a halo of merriment and joy.

     THE FANCY DRESSED BALL. Clothed in the sameunassuming garb which is wont toenvelop the outer man in our daily walk among men, we entered, on Friday eveninglast, the door leading to Stockton's Hall. We confess to have been somewhatexercised by the question whether or not we should assume a disguise. We passedin review before us all the possible and impossible characters in the range ofattainability, from the ancient Grecian Sage to the modern Border Ruffian. . . .Finding it impossible to choose . . . we rejected all, and went, as beforestated, in the undisguised yet dignified apparel of a knight of the quill.By a slight talismanic invocation known only to the fortunate brotherhood, of thescissors and the pen, we caused the door of the hall to open at our approach, andentered.

     We were impressed with the weight of theresponsibility resting on us. We knew wewere to report the occasion to the public. We were to sing this New Olympiad,vice the Nine Muses-absent on leave-most of whom were supposed to be on thefloor.

     Hardly had we mounted to the hall before thebreath was nearly knocked out of oureditorial, and therefore sacred person, by a hideous nondescript which appearedto be "neither fish, flesh, nor good red herring," but which called us by name,and wrapped us in its embrace. Extricating ourself by a powerful effort, we gazedabout.

     Very soon people and things began to assume someshape and form, and we wereenabled to see all that anybody could see through the dust and by the dimlyburning lamps. "Hands around!" and an infuriate fiend in horns seized a Spanishdonna by one hand and a hypothetical Goddess of Liberty by the other and whirledthem both away in a cloud of dust.

     "Night" in black and spangles, "Morning" inwhite and crescent, young women inhats, men in bonnets, Indians, squaws and papooses, young women in shorts, andyoung women in longs old women, Mother Hubbard and dog.

     A supper came in good time, after which therewas more whirling and dancing, andmusic, and dust, Masks were removed, disguises became more or less dilapidated,faces began to look weary, and at three o'clock, or thereabouts, the announcementwas made that the coteries were at an end.

     Some enthusiastic brigands, aided and abetted bya few flower girls, an Indianand The Devil, with others, concluded that they "wouldn't go home 'till morning,"and kept up the, by this time, and considering the weariness of all parties,rather dubious amusement. We, thinking it was time for us at least,

314 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

to retire, having had our fill of fun, precipitably retired, and thus wasthen, or thereabouts, ended the coteries, and the Fancy Dress Ball. On the whole,although we must confess it was absurd in many features, the ball was as much ofa success as such affairs usually are, and all parties and persons seemed toenjoy themselves quite as fully as they or anybody expected.

LINN AND RILEY COUNTIES STATE THEIR NEEDS

Copied in The Daily Times, Leavenworth, June 10, 1859.

The Linn County Herald says that they want in Linn County "one hundredSchool Marms, who will pledge themselves not to get married within three years."We want one hundred in this county, between the ages of 18 and 21, who willpledge themselves to get married within one year, and who are willing tocommence school on one scholar.-The Kansas Express, Manhattan.

WILD BEAR IN ATCHISON

From the Atchison Union, June 25,1859.

     On Sunday night last a huge bear made hisappearance in Our city. Whether he wasdriven in by the storm, or by a pack of dogs we are unable to say. He wasattacked by some fifty dogs near the corner of 5th, on Commercial street, andfinally succeeded in making his escape through the western part of the city.Probably bruin saw the elephant, and returned to the rural districtssatisfied.

AS IT LOOKED TO AN INDIAN

From the Marysville Enterprise, November 10, 1866.

     An exchange says that the other day while a bigIndian was calmly surveying a"white squaw" with large hoops on, he exclaimed: "Ugh! heap wigwam 1"

From the Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, May 29, 1868.

     ENTERPRISE.-Five Kaw Indians started from thiscity yesterday, with the avowedintention of walking to Washington City. The interpreter stated that PresidentJohnson had promised, sometime since, to give one of the party a pony and someother presents, but having failed to redeem the promise they intended to learnthe cause. He thought they could make the trip in sixteen days, and would beenabled to find the way by following the railroad and telegraph lines. They weremaking good railroad time down the Union Pacific road when last seen, and we maysoon expect to hear of their arrival at the great impeachment center.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 315

A MULE RACE AT FORT LEAVENWORTH

From the Leavenworth Daily Conservative, June 16, 1868.

     We presume it is unnecessary to advise everybodyto go to the slow mule raceto-day. All who have seen one of those entertaining affairs will certainly go.There is more amusement in them than in all other kinds of turf sports combined.Upwards of twenty entries have already been made. The stock will all be ridden byofficers of the army. The race commences at 4 o'clock p. m.

June Meeting,
Tuesday, June 16th, 1868--4 P. M.
MULE RACE.
Officers' Purse, $50.
ONE MILE DASH-SLOW RACE.

1. General Custer enters Hyankedank, by Hifalutin, out of Snollygoster, seconddam Buckjump, by Thunder, out of You Bet. Age, three score years and ten. Colors,ring-ed, streak-ed and strip-ed.
2. General McKeever enters Hard Tack, by Commissary, by Eaton, (eatin',) seconddam Contractor, by Morgan, out of Missouri. Age, forty years. Colors, purple,tipped with orange.
3. Colonel Parsons enters Symmetry, (see me try,) by Considerably, out of Pocket,second dam Polly Tix, by Nasby, out of Office. Age, seventeen years. Colors,uncommonly blue.
4. Captain Yates enters William Tell, by Switzerland, by Apple Tree, second damGessler, by Hapsburg, out of Austria. Age, eighteen years. Colors, applegreen.
5. Lieutenant Leary enters Trump, by Card, out of Contractor, second dam Leader,by Mule Teer, out of Wagon. Age, ten years. Colors, lemon. 6. Lieutenant Jacksonenters Abyssinia, by Napier, out of Africa, dam Theodorus, by Solomon, out ofMagdala. Age, thirty-nine years. Colors, scarlet, yellow spots.
7. Colonel Myers enters Pizzarro, by Peru, out of South America, second damCuzco, by Incas, out of Andes. Age, sixteen years. Colors, light brown.
8. Lieutenant Umbstaetter enters Skirmisher, by Picket, out of Camp, second damCarbine, by Breech Loader, out of Magazine. Age, twenty-five years. Colors, darkblue, tipped with red.
9. Lieutenant Moylan enters Break Neck, by Runaway, out of Wouldn't Go, seconddam Contusion, by Collision, out of Accident. Age, fifty-six. Colors, skyblue.

316 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

10. Captain Buntington enters Spavin, by Quartermaster, out of ,Government,second dam (not worth one.)
11. Lieutenant Howe enters Slow, by Tardy, out of Late, second dam Lazy, byInactive. Age, three times six, four times seven, twenty-eight and eleven.Colors, queer.
12. Lieutenant Dunwoody enters Horatio, by Dexterity, by Taunt, second dam Estop.Age, fourteen years. Colors, tawny.
13. Captain Weir enters Revolutionist, by Hard Luck, out of Rib Smasher, seconddam Blood Blister, by Can't Stand It, out of Let's Quit.

NOTE.-The money accruing from this race is to be devoted to the support of thewidows and orphans made so thereby.

From the Daily Conservative, June 17, 1868.

     THE RACES YESTERDAY-Whew! wasn't it warm, anddidn't the people turn out ingorgeous array-some in coaches, some in buggies, some on horseback, and some insix-mule chariots. Everybody and his wife was there. On the road it was hot anddusty in the track enclosure the immense elms spread their welcome arms, and theheated thousands cooled themselves on the green grass. All were on the tip-toe ofexpectation. Critical judges of ani-mules were examining the good points of theirfavorite mules, and betting their bottom twenty-five cents on No. 9, or thepainted mule. No. 9 was a gothic structure, with an expressive (of pain)countenance, and was wearing his first coat of paint-white in spots. He wasridden with much dexterity, and was twelve minutes making his mile.

     The ladies were out in full force, and enlivenedthe scene. The Fort Banddiscoursed some excellent music, and every arrangement was carried out promptly.Eleven mules were entered for the race. Each mule was ridden one hundred yards byhis owner, to the judges' stand, and numbered, with red paint, on the flank. Thejudges then had the riders change mules, so that no man rode his own animal.They were started from the score at the tap of the triangle. Some went in onedirection, and some took to the brush. Only two or three kept the track, and onthey went, cutting and slashing, each man urging the mule he was riding.

     Occasionally a rider was seen coming through thegrass and taking the track. Allpointed the same direction, at last, and after three anxious moments, LieutenantJackson hove in sight, and rounded into the home stretch away ahead, landing hismule (No. 5) at the judges' stand in four minutes. As they came stringing along,time was taken of each, and that mule's record passed down to posterity andWilkes' Spirit. After fifteen long and anxious minutes, (the crowd all the timeholding their breath) Lieutenant Huntington reached the score, completelyexhausted, the anxiety, labor, and length of time since his departure havingturned his hair nearly gray. The band immediately struck up, "See, the ConqueringHero Comes."

     The second race was a single dash of a quartermile, four entries, and was won byCaptain Weir's beautiful thoroughbred horse, in 23 seconds.The crowd then started home, pleased with the half holiday and the entertainmentgiven by the gentlemanly officers of Fort Leavenworth.

317 BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY

DON'T TRY THIS ON YOUR BUTCHER

From the Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, December 28, 1869.

     An Indian in Montgomery county set fire to theprairie because one of thesettlers would not give him some pork.

From the Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, February 8, 1870.

Wild Bill [Hickok] was up before Judge Holmes yesterday, and fined fivedollarsfor striking straight out from the shoulder and consequently hitting a man.

From The Sumner County Press, Wellington, July 16, 1874.

     Thousands of bushels of wild plums are ripeningon the Arkansas, Ninnescah andChikaskia rivers. These plums grow on dwarf trees, in some instances covering theentire shrub with a mass of pink and yellow fruit. So abundant are they that asmall party can gather a wagon load in a few hours. They are nearly equal to thebest cultivated varieties.

GRASSHOPPERS EAT THE SHADE PRESBYTERIANS MOVEINDOORS

From the Marion County Record, Marion, August 8, 1874.

     Owing to the destruction of the shade bygrasshoppers, the 2d quarterly meetingof the Marion Centre charge will be held in the Presbyterian church in connectionwith a basket meeting, commencing Friday, Aug. 14. Ministerial aid from abroad.Both saint and sinner are cordially invited to attend. First service, Friday, at11 A. M. Jno. HAMS.

YES, BUT WHICH WAY DID THEY GOT

From the Jetmore Reveille, September 9, 1885.

     Dr. Eckert reports having seen a very novel signposted on an abandoned dugout inthe vicinity of Sunset City, a new town springing up and intended for the futurecounty seat of the southwest corner county [Morton]. It was as follows.


Bypaths of Kansas History - February 1945

From the Kansas City (Mo.) Enterprise, May 9, 1857.

You can see the emigrant from every State east of the Mississippi, from Maine to Louisiana, and from the wild rice swamps of the frozen North to cultivated rice fields of the far South-their peculiar habits as distinctly marked as their geographical localities. The real Western man is there, self reliant and taciturn-he asks no questions, for he knows exactly what to do he has no need of "Kansas Guides" or tickets to agents "who will tell him where to go, and where to settle" he has been "through the mill," keeps his own counsel and goes his own road. He knows exactly what prairie is worth, and what timber will suffice, and if there is a good "claim" to be found the Western man has it before the Eastern man gets through asking questions of the "man that he was recommended to." Then you find the Southwestern man: he wants to know all about the winters, the grass, and the best portions for stock raising. The man from the Middle States, as they were once called, is on the look out for some point where he can raise wheat, put up a shop, and manufacture or run machinery. The man from the Eastern Slave States wants to know "how the law is," or what "chance for a physician." Over all these the Western man has the advantage, and secures the prize while others are inquiring where it is.

Side by side with this population pressing upon us from the East, are seen the men of the Far West, who come to Kansas City as their East. There is the Indian trader from the Rocky mountains, from the Yellowstone, the country beyond Laramie, and the pleasant valleys lying toward the Great Salt Lake-his almost Indian complexion and moccasins would deceive you into the belief that he was an aborigine. . . . He knows what life on the frontier is, and speaks as a prophet. [You will see him shake hands with the] "mountaineer," men who have made the vast country lying West of the Mississippi and stretching to the Pacific their home. . . . [The mountaineer] is the mail carrier of all that vast region and the minister plenipotentiary between all portions of that wild and secluded country. [You next see the trader of the Southwest] . . . from Santa Fe and the Mexican States beyond. He makes his semi-annual visits with the regularity of the seasons themselves. . . . It is a curious mixture of races that [carries on this trade]. Intermingled with all classes are . . . the pure and untainted Indian. . . . [When one reflects that] this tide is sweeping out through the valley of the Kansas, . . . some idea may be gained of the present and future commerce of this "city of the plains."

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 311

"SOCIETY" AS COVERED BY THE IRREPRESSIBLE SOL. MILLER

From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, November 4, 1858.

STARTLING NEW--ELOPEMENT!-Friday is supposed to be an unlucky day. Such it has proven for White Cloud. On Friday last, this community was startled by the announcement that the pride of the town, the gem of the Missouri, the cynosure of admiring eyes, had been abducted-the accomplished and peerless Julia Ann Pryor had eloped!

The circumstances were these: During the past summer, a young man from the land of steady nutmegs and wooden habits, was engaged in working on the grade, in this place. His sturdy industry, civil deportment, and economical disposition, came under the notice of the gentle Julia Ann, and were a sure passport to her affections. And he, carrying beneath a rough exterior, a soul that could appreciate the beautiful, the virtuous, and the good, soon yielded his heart to the charmer. They met, he proposed, and was accepted. The grade at length was finished, and he was compelled to look elsewhere for employment. But how could he leave his Julia Ann? He could not-and he determined that he would not. And now they made a false step, which, with due consideration, their high sense of honor would have revolted against. They did not ask the consent of the maiden's parents. But he was poor, and perhaps had misgivings-he could not bear to think of the dreadful consequences of a refusal from the aristocratic father and mother. So they determined, in the language of the immortal poet, Anonymous, to

"Slide, like the tail of a greased hog from the paws of a fat Dutchman!"

On Friday morning they took their flight, amid the chilling rain and howling wind. The robbed parents soon learned of their loss, and were forthwith plunged into

"That grief which knows no comfort."

But rage soon sought company with grief, in the father's breast-rage, because he had been robbed of that which would have been given for the asking. The lion of his nature was aroused-that lion nature which had made his name feared among the hills of Monroe County, Ohio. Seizing his fists, he started in pursuit of the fugitives, and hunted in every spot where they could not be found, until he was compelled to give up in despair. He says that what works him up the worst, is the fact that the fellow came to him, the evening before, and asked for some hay to feed his cattle, but took his daughter without asking for her.

In the meantime, the fugitives were wandering about town, seeking, not whom they might devour, but whom they might get to fasten them together. At length they entered Van Doren's store, where they ran afoul of Squire Briggs, whom they requested to unite them in the holy bonds of "ma-trim-ony." He consented, and the expectant bridegroom "shelled out" the lawful fee of $1.50, which the squire took. He then meditated upon the subject. He had misgivings as to whether the would-be bride was of legal age and he also considered that the time might soon come, when some indiscreet youth would steal one of his daughters, and he would think very unkindly of any justice who should marry them. These considerations (especially the former) he could not get over nor creep under, so he handed back the fee, regardless of the entreaties of the young couple, and refused to perform upon that particular occasion.

312 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Here was a predicament. The fact is, the couple could not stand it much longer and they feared, that if they remained in this suspense, soon "Disappointment, like a big green tobacco worm, would prey upon their damask cheeks," (Shakespeare,) and they therefore contracted their "puckering strings," and continued their "pursuit of matrimony under difficulties." Thus they wandered out to Padonia, where they hunted up Squire Winslow, who, being a kindhearted man, could not bear to behold their misery, and quickly tied them into a knot. . . .

Thus endeth this happy and melancholy story-happy, because two loving hearts have found the Eden of bliss melancholy, because a home has been made desolate, by the loss of its hope and joy, and an entire community has been left, in the language of still another illustrious poet, to

LEAVENWORTH'S FANCY DRESS BALL OF 1859

From The Daily Times, Leavenworth, March 4,1859.

The Friday-Evening Coteries end to-night with a Fancy Dress-Ball. The series have been of an exceedingly agreeable nature. They have called out the beauty and grace of Leavenworth, and given to the Fridays of each week a particular charm. But to-night will eclipse them all-to-night Stockton's Hall will be crowded with an array which no language can paint: for the widest range and latitude in the matter of dress, will not only be allowed, but expected and every conceivable style and costume may be anticipated. We may expect the amply-folding robe, with modest clasp, and zone on the bosom the braided hair or veiled head fashions alike of the wife of a Phocian, the mistress of an Alcibiades or perhaps short skirts with hardened vest, and head buckled in gold or silver or the iron bodice, stiff farthingale and spiral coiffure or dresses more modern and modest-of Italian flower-girls, or French grisettes, or Circassian slaves, or the lassies of our own and our mother land. In fact, there's no end to the range for,

In fact, we don't know but what our goodly ladies propose "making up" so as to render themselves incog. The lean will probably fashion themselves after the proportions of Reuben's Graces, none of which could possibly have weighed less than 200 lbs. avoirdupois.

And as far as the gentlemen are concerned, what may we not expect? Highlanders, and knights, and kings and courtiers, and bandits, (of the genteel sort,) and warriors and buffoons and harlequins and minstrels, with togas, and plumes, and robes, and sashes, and gowns, and wigs, and swords, and daggers, and plumes, and feathers, and trunk hose, and scarlet coats,-a la Voltaire,-and bare throats,-a la Byron. . .

Well-on with the dance! We will not regret when evening comes and the strange company meet, arrayed in all their plumes, to dance to the merrie music. We shall be on hand in the garb of an editor-a disguise which needs no inquisitive eye to pierce, and which generally brings to mind an idea of

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 313

unappreciated merit and ungrateful Republics. And we shall watch those dainty extremities of which Herrick so daintily sings.

So-Ahoy! for the hall and the dance to-night! What matters mud or rain? Bright hearts, and dazzling robes, and lighted rooms, and stirring strains, will laugh the elements to scorn, and circle to-night with a halo of merriment and joy.

From the Times of March 7, 1859.

THE FANCY DRESSED BALL. Clothed in the same unassuming garb which is wont to envelop the outer man in our daily walk among men, we entered, on Friday evening last, the door leading to Stockton's Hall. We confess to have been somewhat exercised by the question whether or not we should assume a disguise. We passed in review before us all the possible and impossible characters in the range of attainability, from the ancient Grecian Sage to the modern Border Ruffian. . . . Finding it impossible to choose . . . we rejected all, and went, as before stated, in the undisguised yet dignified apparel of a knight of the quill. By a slight talismanic invocation known only to the fortunate brotherhood, of the scissors and the pen, we caused the door of the hall to open at our approach, and entered.

We were impressed with the weight of the responsibility resting on us. We knew we were to report the occasion to the public. We were to sing this New Olympiad, vice the Nine Muses-absent on leave-most of whom were supposed to be on the floor.

Hardly had we mounted to the hall before the breath was nearly knocked out of our editorial, and therefore sacred person, by a hideous nondescript which appeared to be "neither fish, flesh, nor good red herring," but which called us by name, and wrapped us in its embrace. Extricating ourself by a powerful effort, we gazed about.

Very soon people and things began to assume some shape and form, and we were enabled to see all that anybody could see through the dust and by the dimly burning lamps. "Hands around!" and an infuriate fiend in horns seized a Spanish donna by one hand and a hypothetical Goddess of Liberty by the other and whirled them both away in a cloud of dust.

"Night" in black and spangles, "Morning" in white and crescent, young women in hats, men in bonnets, Indians, squaws and papooses, young women in shorts, and young women in longs old women, Mother Hubbard and dog.

A supper came in good time, after which there was more whirling and dancing, and music, and dust, Masks were removed, disguises became more or less dilapidated, faces began to look weary, and at three o'clock, or thereabouts, the announcement was made that the coteries were at an end.

Some enthusiastic brigands, aided and abetted by a few flower girls, an Indian and The Devil, with others, concluded that they "wouldn't go home 'till morning," and kept up the, by this time, and considering the weariness of all parties, rather dubious amusement. We, thinking it was time for us at least,

314 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

to retire, having had our fill of fun, precipitably retired, and thus was then, or thereabouts, ended the coteries, and the Fancy Dress Ball. On the whole, although we must confess it was absurd in many features, the ball was as much of a success as such affairs usually are, and all parties and persons seemed to enjoy themselves quite as fully as they or anybody expected.

Sic transit gloria coteri.

LINN AND RILEY COUNTIES STATE THEIR NEEDS

Copied in The Daily Times, Leavenworth, June 10, 1859.

The Linn County Herald says that they want in Linn County "one hundred School Marms, who will pledge themselves not to get married within three years." We want one hundred in this county, between the ages of 18 and 21, who will pledge themselves to get married within one year, and who are willing to commence school on one scholar.-The Kansas Express, Manhattan.

WILD BEAR IN ATCHISON

From the Atchison Union, June 25,1859.

On Sunday night last a huge bear made his appearance in Our city. Whether he was driven in by the storm, or by a pack of dogs we are unable to say. He was attacked by some fifty dogs near the corner of 5th, on Commercial street, and finally succeeded in making his escape through the western part of the city. Probably bruin saw the elephant, and returned to the rural districts satisfied.

AS IT LOOKED TO AN INDIAN

From the Marysville Enterprise, November 10, 1866.

An exchange says that the other day while a big Indian was calmly surveying a "white squaw" with large hoops on, he exclaimed: "Ugh! heap wigwam 1"

AN "INDIAN PROMISER"

From the Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, May 29, 1868.

ENTERPRISE.-Five Kaw Indians started from this city yesterday, with the avowed intention of walking to Washington City. The interpreter stated that President Johnson had promised, sometime since, to give one of the party a pony and some other presents, but having failed to redeem the promise they intended to learn the cause. He thought they could make the trip in sixteen days, and would be enabled to find the way by following the railroad and telegraph lines. They were making good railroad time down the Union Pacific road when last seen, and we may soon expect to hear of their arrival at the great impeachment center.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 315

A MULE RACE AT FORT LEAVENWORTH

From the Leavenworth Daily Conservative, June 16, 1868.

We presume it is unnecessary to advise everybody to go to the slow mule race to-day. All who have seen one of those entertaining affairs will certainly go. There is more amusement in them than in all other kinds of turf sports combined. Upwards of twenty entries have already been made. The stock will all be ridden by officers of the army. The race commences at 4 o'clock p. m.

UNITED STATES OF COURSE, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.

June Meeting,
Tuesday, June 16th, 1868--4 P. M.

MULE RACE.

Officers' Purse, $50.

ONE MILE DASH-SLOW RACE.

1. General Custer enters Hyankedank, by Hifalutin, out of Snollygoster, second dam Buckjump, by Thunder, out of You Bet. Age, three score years and ten. Colors, ring-ed, streak-ed and strip-ed.
2. General McKeever enters Hard Tack, by Commissary, by Eaton, (eatin',) second dam Contractor, by Morgan, out of Missouri. Age, forty years. Colors, purple, tipped with orange.
3. Colonel Parsons enters Symmetry, (see me try,) by Considerably, out of Pocket, second dam Polly Tix, by Nasby, out of Office. Age, seventeen years. Colors, uncommonly blue.
4. Captain Yates enters William Tell, by Switzerland, by Apple Tree, second dam Gessler, by Hapsburg, out of Austria. Age, eighteen years. Colors, apple green.
5. Lieutenant Leary enters Trump, by Card, out of Contractor, second dam Leader, by Mule Teer, out of Wagon. Age, ten years. Colors, lemon. 6. Lieutenant Jackson enters Abyssinia, by Napier, out of Africa, dam Theodorus, by Solomon, out of Magdala. Age, thirty-nine years. Colors, scarlet, yellow spots.
7. Colonel Myers enters Pizzarro, by Peru, out of South America, second dam Cuzco, by Incas, out of Andes. Age, sixteen years. Colors, light brown.
8. Lieutenant Umbstaetter enters Skirmisher, by Picket, out of Camp, second dam Carbine, by Breech Loader, out of Magazine. Age, twenty-five years. Colors, dark blue, tipped with red.
9. Lieutenant Moylan enters Break Neck, by Runaway, out of Wouldn't Go, second dam Contusion, by Collision, out of Accident. Age, fifty-six. Colors, sky blue.

316 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

10. Captain Buntington enters Spavin, by Quartermaster, out of ,Government, second dam (not worth one.)
11. Lieutenant Howe enters Slow, by Tardy, out of Late, second dam Lazy, by Inactive. Age, three times six, four times seven, twenty-eight and eleven. Colors, queer.
12. Lieutenant Dunwoody enters Horatio, by Dexterity, by Taunt, second dam Estop. Age, fourteen years. Colors, tawny.
13. Captain Weir enters Revolutionist, by Hard Luck, out of Rib Smasher, second dam Blood Blister, by Can't Stand It, out of Let's Quit.

NOTE.-The money accruing from this race is to be devoted to the support of the widows and orphans made so thereby.

From the Daily Conservative, June 17, 1868.

THE RACES YESTERDAY-Whew! wasn't it warm, and didn't the people turn out in gorgeous array-some in coaches, some in buggies, some on horseback, and some in six-mule chariots. Everybody and his wife was there. On the road it was hot and dusty in the track enclosure the immense elms spread their welcome arms, and the heated thousands cooled themselves on the green grass. All were on the tip-toe of expectation. Critical judges of ani-mules were examining the good points of their favorite mules, and betting their bottom twenty-five cents on No. 9, or the painted mule. No. 9 was a gothic structure, with an expressive (of pain) countenance, and was wearing his first coat of paint-white in spots. He was ridden with much dexterity, and was twelve minutes making his mile.

The ladies were out in full force, and enlivened the scene. The Fort Band discoursed some excellent music, and every arrangement was carried out promptly. Eleven mules were entered for the race. Each mule was ridden one hundred yards by his owner, to the judges' stand, and numbered, with red paint, on the flank. The judges then had the riders change mules, so that no man rode his own animal. They were started from the score at the tap of the triangle. Some went in one direction, and some took to the brush. Only two or three kept the track, and on they went, cutting and slashing, each man urging the mule he was riding.

Occasionally a rider was seen coming through the grass and taking the track. All pointed the same direction, at last, and after three anxious moments, Lieutenant Jackson hove in sight, and rounded into the home stretch away ahead, landing his mule (No. 5) at the judges' stand in four minutes. As they came stringing along, time was taken of each, and that mule's record passed down to posterity and Wilkes' Spirit. After fifteen long and anxious minutes, (the crowd all the time holding their breath) Lieutenant Huntington reached the score, completely exhausted, the anxiety, labor, and length of time since his departure having turned his hair nearly gray. The band immediately struck up, "See, the Conquering Hero Comes."

The second race was a single dash of a quarter mile, four entries, and was won by Captain Weir's beautiful thoroughbred horse, in 23 seconds. The crowd then started home, pleased with the half holiday and the entertainment given by the gentlemanly officers of Fort Leavenworth.

317 BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY

DON'T TRY THIS ON YOUR BUTCHER

From the Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, December 28, 1869.

An Indian in Montgomery county set fire to the prairie because one of the settlers would not give him some pork.

KEEPING IN TRIM

From the Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, February 8, 1870.

Wild Bill [Hickok] was up before Judge Holmes yesterday, and fined five dollars for striking straight out from the shoulder and consequently hitting a man.

WILD PLUMS IN 1874

From The Sumner County Press, Wellington, July 16, 1874.

Thousands of bushels of wild plums are ripening on the Arkansas, Ninnescah and Chikaskia rivers. These plums grow on dwarf trees, in some instances covering the entire shrub with a mass of pink and yellow fruit. So abundant are they that a small party can gather a wagon load in a few hours. They are nearly equal to the best cultivated varieties.

GRASSHOPPERS EAT THE SHADE PRESBYTERIANS MOVE INDOORS

From the Marion County Record, Marion, August 8, 1874.

Owing to the destruction of the shade by grasshoppers, the 2d quarterly meeting of the Marion Centre charge will be held in the Presbyterian church in connection with a basket meeting, commencing Friday, Aug. 14. Ministerial aid from abroad. Both saint and sinner are cordially invited to attend. First service, Friday, at 11 A. M. Jno. HAMS.

YES, BUT WHICH WAY DID THEY GOT

From the Jetmore Reveille, September 9, 1885.

Dr. Eckert reports having seen a very novel sign posted on an abandoned dugout in the vicinity of Sunset City, a new town springing up and intended for the future county seat of the southwest corner county [Morton]. It was as follows.

"Two hundred feet to water,
Seventy-five miles to wood,
and Six inches to Hell
God bless our home."

Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains

The latest in scholarship on Kansas history, published quarterly since 1978 by the Kansas Historical Foundation.


Bypaths of Kansas History - February 1945

From the Kansas City (Mo.) Enterprise, May 9, 1857.

You can see the emigrant from every State east of the Mississippi, from Maine to Louisiana, and from the wild rice swamps of the frozen North to cultivated rice fields of the far South-their peculiar habits as distinctly marked as their geographical localities. The real Western man is there, self reliant and taciturn-he asks no questions, for he knows exactly what to do he has no need of "Kansas Guides" or tickets to agents "who will tell him where to go, and where to settle" he has been "through the mill," keeps his own counsel and goes his own road. He knows exactly what prairie is worth, and what timber will suffice, and if there is a good "claim" to be found the Western man has it before the Eastern man gets through asking questions of the "man that he was recommended to." Then you find the Southwestern man: he wants to know all about the winters, the grass, and the best portions for stock raising. The man from the Middle States, as they were once called, is on the look out for some point where he can raise wheat, put up a shop, and manufacture or run machinery. The man from the Eastern Slave States wants to know "how the law is," or what "chance for a physician." Over all these the Western man has the advantage, and secures the prize while others are inquiring where it is.

Side by side with this population pressing upon us from the East, are seen the men of the Far West, who come to Kansas City as their East. There is the Indian trader from the Rocky mountains, from the Yellowstone, the country beyond Laramie, and the pleasant valleys lying toward the Great Salt Lake-his almost Indian complexion and moccasins would deceive you into the belief that he was an aborigine. . . . He knows what life on the frontier is, and speaks as a prophet. [You will see him shake hands with the] "mountaineer," men who have made the vast country lying West of the Mississippi and stretching to the Pacific their home. . . . [The mountaineer] is the mail carrier of all that vast region and the minister plenipotentiary between all portions of that wild and secluded country. [You next see the trader of the Southwest] . . . from Santa Fe and the Mexican States beyond. He makes his semi-annual visits with the regularity of the seasons themselves. . . . It is a curious mixture of races that [carries on this trade]. Intermingled with all classes are . . . the pure and untainted Indian. . . . [When one reflects that] this tide is sweeping out through the valley of the Kansas, . . . some idea may be gained of the present and future commerce of this "city of the plains."

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 311

"SOCIETY" AS COVERED BY THE IRREPRESSIBLE SOL. MILLER

From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, November 4, 1858.

STARTLING NEW--ELOPEMENT!-Friday is supposed to be an unlucky day. Such it has proven for White Cloud. On Friday last, this community was startled by the announcement that the pride of the town, the gem of the Missouri, the cynosure of admiring eyes, had been abducted-the accomplished and peerless Julia Ann Pryor had eloped!

The circumstances were these: During the past summer, a young man from the land of steady nutmegs and wooden habits, was engaged in working on the grade, in this place. His sturdy industry, civil deportment, and economical disposition, came under the notice of the gentle Julia Ann, and were a sure passport to her affections. And he, carrying beneath a rough exterior, a soul that could appreciate the beautiful, the virtuous, and the good, soon yielded his heart to the charmer. They met, he proposed, and was accepted. The grade at length was finished, and he was compelled to look elsewhere for employment. But how could he leave his Julia Ann? He could not-and he determined that he would not. And now they made a false step, which, with due consideration, their high sense of honor would have revolted against. They did not ask the consent of the maiden's parents. But he was poor, and perhaps had misgivings-he could not bear to think of the dreadful consequences of a refusal from the aristocratic father and mother. So they determined, in the language of the immortal poet, Anonymous, to

"Slide, like the tail of a greased hog from the paws of a fat Dutchman!"

On Friday morning they took their flight, amid the chilling rain and howling wind. The robbed parents soon learned of their loss, and were forthwith plunged into

"That grief which knows no comfort."

But rage soon sought company with grief, in the father's breast-rage, because he had been robbed of that which would have been given for the asking. The lion of his nature was aroused-that lion nature which had made his name feared among the hills of Monroe County, Ohio. Seizing his fists, he started in pursuit of the fugitives, and hunted in every spot where they could not be found, until he was compelled to give up in despair. He says that what works him up the worst, is the fact that the fellow came to him, the evening before, and asked for some hay to feed his cattle, but took his daughter without asking for her.

In the meantime, the fugitives were wandering about town, seeking, not whom they might devour, but whom they might get to fasten them together. At length they entered Van Doren's store, where they ran afoul of Squire Briggs, whom they requested to unite them in the holy bonds of "ma-trim-ony." He consented, and the expectant bridegroom "shelled out" the lawful fee of $1.50, which the squire took. He then meditated upon the subject. He had misgivings as to whether the would-be bride was of legal age and he also considered that the time might soon come, when some indiscreet youth would steal one of his daughters, and he would think very unkindly of any justice who should marry them. These considerations (especially the former) he could not get over nor creep under, so he handed back the fee, regardless of the entreaties of the young couple, and refused to perform upon that particular occasion.

312 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Here was a predicament. The fact is, the couple could not stand it much longer and they feared, that if they remained in this suspense, soon "Disappointment, like a big green tobacco worm, would prey upon their damask cheeks," (Shakespeare,) and they therefore contracted their "puckering strings," and continued their "pursuit of matrimony under difficulties." Thus they wandered out to Padonia, where they hunted up Squire Winslow, who, being a kindhearted man, could not bear to behold their misery, and quickly tied them into a knot. . . .

Thus endeth this happy and melancholy story-happy, because two loving hearts have found the Eden of bliss melancholy, because a home has been made desolate, by the loss of its hope and joy, and an entire community has been left, in the language of still another illustrious poet, to

LEAVENWORTH'S FANCY DRESS BALL OF 1859

From The Daily Times, Leavenworth, March 4,1859.

The Friday-Evening Coteries end to-night with a Fancy Dress-Ball. The series have been of an exceedingly agreeable nature. They have called out the beauty and grace of Leavenworth, and given to the Fridays of each week a particular charm. But to-night will eclipse them all-to-night Stockton's Hall will be crowded with an array which no language can paint: for the widest range and latitude in the matter of dress, will not only be allowed, but expected and every conceivable style and costume may be anticipated. We may expect the amply-folding robe, with modest clasp, and zone on the bosom the braided hair or veiled head fashions alike of the wife of a Phocian, the mistress of an Alcibiades or perhaps short skirts with hardened vest, and head buckled in gold or silver or the iron bodice, stiff farthingale and spiral coiffure or dresses more modern and modest-of Italian flower-girls, or French grisettes, or Circassian slaves, or the lassies of our own and our mother land. In fact, there's no end to the range for,

In fact, we don't know but what our goodly ladies propose "making up" so as to render themselves incog. The lean will probably fashion themselves after the proportions of Reuben's Graces, none of which could possibly have weighed less than 200 lbs. avoirdupois.

And as far as the gentlemen are concerned, what may we not expect? Highlanders, and knights, and kings and courtiers, and bandits, (of the genteel sort,) and warriors and buffoons and harlequins and minstrels, with togas, and plumes, and robes, and sashes, and gowns, and wigs, and swords, and daggers, and plumes, and feathers, and trunk hose, and scarlet coats,-a la Voltaire,-and bare throats,-a la Byron. . .

Well-on with the dance! We will not regret when evening comes and the strange company meet, arrayed in all their plumes, to dance to the merrie music. We shall be on hand in the garb of an editor-a disguise which needs no inquisitive eye to pierce, and which generally brings to mind an idea of

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 313

unappreciated merit and ungrateful Republics. And we shall watch those dainty extremities of which Herrick so daintily sings.

So-Ahoy! for the hall and the dance to-night! What matters mud or rain? Bright hearts, and dazzling robes, and lighted rooms, and stirring strains, will laugh the elements to scorn, and circle to-night with a halo of merriment and joy.

From the Times of March 7, 1859.

THE FANCY DRESSED BALL. Clothed in the same unassuming garb which is wont to envelop the outer man in our daily walk among men, we entered, on Friday evening last, the door leading to Stockton's Hall. We confess to have been somewhat exercised by the question whether or not we should assume a disguise. We passed in review before us all the possible and impossible characters in the range of attainability, from the ancient Grecian Sage to the modern Border Ruffian. . . . Finding it impossible to choose . . . we rejected all, and went, as before stated, in the undisguised yet dignified apparel of a knight of the quill. By a slight talismanic invocation known only to the fortunate brotherhood, of the scissors and the pen, we caused the door of the hall to open at our approach, and entered.

We were impressed with the weight of the responsibility resting on us. We knew we were to report the occasion to the public. We were to sing this New Olympiad, vice the Nine Muses-absent on leave-most of whom were supposed to be on the floor.

Hardly had we mounted to the hall before the breath was nearly knocked out of our editorial, and therefore sacred person, by a hideous nondescript which appeared to be "neither fish, flesh, nor good red herring," but which called us by name, and wrapped us in its embrace. Extricating ourself by a powerful effort, we gazed about.

Very soon people and things began to assume some shape and form, and we were enabled to see all that anybody could see through the dust and by the dimly burning lamps. "Hands around!" and an infuriate fiend in horns seized a Spanish donna by one hand and a hypothetical Goddess of Liberty by the other and whirled them both away in a cloud of dust.

"Night" in black and spangles, "Morning" in white and crescent, young women in hats, men in bonnets, Indians, squaws and papooses, young women in shorts, and young women in longs old women, Mother Hubbard and dog.

A supper came in good time, after which there was more whirling and dancing, and music, and dust, Masks were removed, disguises became more or less dilapidated, faces began to look weary, and at three o'clock, or thereabouts, the announcement was made that the coteries were at an end.

Some enthusiastic brigands, aided and abetted by a few flower girls, an Indian and The Devil, with others, concluded that they "wouldn't go home 'till morning," and kept up the, by this time, and considering the weariness of all parties, rather dubious amusement. We, thinking it was time for us at least,

314 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

to retire, having had our fill of fun, precipitably retired, and thus was then, or thereabouts, ended the coteries, and the Fancy Dress Ball. On the whole, although we must confess it was absurd in many features, the ball was as much of a success as such affairs usually are, and all parties and persons seemed to enjoy themselves quite as fully as they or anybody expected.

Sic transit gloria coteri.

LINN AND RILEY COUNTIES STATE THEIR NEEDS

Copied in The Daily Times, Leavenworth, June 10, 1859.

The Linn County Herald says that they want in Linn County "one hundred School Marms, who will pledge themselves not to get married within three years." We want one hundred in this county, between the ages of 18 and 21, who will pledge themselves to get married within one year, and who are willing to commence school on one scholar.-The Kansas Express, Manhattan.

WILD BEAR IN ATCHISON

From the Atchison Union, June 25,1859.

On Sunday night last a huge bear made his appearance in Our city. Whether he was driven in by the storm, or by a pack of dogs we are unable to say. He was attacked by some fifty dogs near the corner of 5th, on Commercial street, and finally succeeded in making his escape through the western part of the city. Probably bruin saw the elephant, and returned to the rural districts satisfied.

AS IT LOOKED TO AN INDIAN

From the Marysville Enterprise, November 10, 1866.

An exchange says that the other day while a big Indian was calmly surveying a "white squaw" with large hoops on, he exclaimed: "Ugh! heap wigwam 1"

AN "INDIAN PROMISER"

From the Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, May 29, 1868.

ENTERPRISE.-Five Kaw Indians started from this city yesterday, with the avowed intention of walking to Washington City. The interpreter stated that President Johnson had promised, sometime since, to give one of the party a pony and some other presents, but having failed to redeem the promise they intended to learn the cause. He thought they could make the trip in sixteen days, and would be enabled to find the way by following the railroad and telegraph lines. They were making good railroad time down the Union Pacific road when last seen, and we may soon expect to hear of their arrival at the great impeachment center.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 315

A MULE RACE AT FORT LEAVENWORTH

From the Leavenworth Daily Conservative, June 16, 1868.

We presume it is unnecessary to advise everybody to go to the slow mule race to-day. All who have seen one of those entertaining affairs will certainly go. There is more amusement in them than in all other kinds of turf sports combined. Upwards of twenty entries have already been made. The stock will all be ridden by officers of the army. The race commences at 4 o'clock p. m.

UNITED STATES OF COURSE, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.

June Meeting,
Tuesday, June 16th, 1868--4 P. M.

MULE RACE.

Officers' Purse, $50.

ONE MILE DASH-SLOW RACE.

1. General Custer enters Hyankedank, by Hifalutin, out of Snollygoster, second dam Buckjump, by Thunder, out of You Bet. Age, three score years and ten. Colors, ring-ed, streak-ed and strip-ed.
2. General McKeever enters Hard Tack, by Commissary, by Eaton, (eatin',) second dam Contractor, by Morgan, out of Missouri. Age, forty years. Colors, purple, tipped with orange.
3. Colonel Parsons enters Symmetry, (see me try,) by Considerably, out of Pocket, second dam Polly Tix, by Nasby, out of Office. Age, seventeen years. Colors, uncommonly blue.
4. Captain Yates enters William Tell, by Switzerland, by Apple Tree, second dam Gessler, by Hapsburg, out of Austria. Age, eighteen years. Colors, apple green.
5. Lieutenant Leary enters Trump, by Card, out of Contractor, second dam Leader, by Mule Teer, out of Wagon. Age, ten years. Colors, lemon. 6. Lieutenant Jackson enters Abyssinia, by Napier, out of Africa, dam Theodorus, by Solomon, out of Magdala. Age, thirty-nine years. Colors, scarlet, yellow spots.
7. Colonel Myers enters Pizzarro, by Peru, out of South America, second dam Cuzco, by Incas, out of Andes. Age, sixteen years. Colors, light brown.
8. Lieutenant Umbstaetter enters Skirmisher, by Picket, out of Camp, second dam Carbine, by Breech Loader, out of Magazine. Age, twenty-five years. Colors, dark blue, tipped with red.
9. Lieutenant Moylan enters Break Neck, by Runaway, out of Wouldn't Go, second dam Contusion, by Collision, out of Accident. Age, fifty-six. Colors, sky blue.

316 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

10. Captain Buntington enters Spavin, by Quartermaster, out of ,Government, second dam (not worth one.)
11. Lieutenant Howe enters Slow, by Tardy, out of Late, second dam Lazy, by Inactive. Age, three times six, four times seven, twenty-eight and eleven. Colors, queer.
12. Lieutenant Dunwoody enters Horatio, by Dexterity, by Taunt, second dam Estop. Age, fourteen years. Colors, tawny.
13. Captain Weir enters Revolutionist, by Hard Luck, out of Rib Smasher, second dam Blood Blister, by Can't Stand It, out of Let's Quit.

NOTE.-The money accruing from this race is to be devoted to the support of the widows and orphans made so thereby.

From the Daily Conservative, June 17, 1868.

THE RACES YESTERDAY-Whew! wasn't it warm, and didn't the people turn out in gorgeous array-some in coaches, some in buggies, some on horseback, and some in six-mule chariots. Everybody and his wife was there. On the road it was hot and dusty in the track enclosure the immense elms spread their welcome arms, and the heated thousands cooled themselves on the green grass. All were on the tip-toe of expectation. Critical judges of ani-mules were examining the good points of their favorite mules, and betting their bottom twenty-five cents on No. 9, or the painted mule. No. 9 was a gothic structure, with an expressive (of pain) countenance, and was wearing his first coat of paint-white in spots. He was ridden with much dexterity, and was twelve minutes making his mile.

The ladies were out in full force, and enlivened the scene. The Fort Band discoursed some excellent music, and every arrangement was carried out promptly. Eleven mules were entered for the race. Each mule was ridden one hundred yards by his owner, to the judges' stand, and numbered, with red paint, on the flank. The judges then had the riders change mules, so that no man rode his own animal. They were started from the score at the tap of the triangle. Some went in one direction, and some took to the brush. Only two or three kept the track, and on they went, cutting and slashing, each man urging the mule he was riding.

Occasionally a rider was seen coming through the grass and taking the track. All pointed the same direction, at last, and after three anxious moments, Lieutenant Jackson hove in sight, and rounded into the home stretch away ahead, landing his mule (No. 5) at the judges' stand in four minutes. As they came stringing along, time was taken of each, and that mule's record passed down to posterity and Wilkes' Spirit. After fifteen long and anxious minutes, (the crowd all the time holding their breath) Lieutenant Huntington reached the score, completely exhausted, the anxiety, labor, and length of time since his departure having turned his hair nearly gray. The band immediately struck up, "See, the Conquering Hero Comes."

The second race was a single dash of a quarter mile, four entries, and was won by Captain Weir's beautiful thoroughbred horse, in 23 seconds. The crowd then started home, pleased with the half holiday and the entertainment given by the gentlemanly officers of Fort Leavenworth.

317 BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY

DON'T TRY THIS ON YOUR BUTCHER

From the Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, December 28, 1869.

An Indian in Montgomery county set fire to the prairie because one of the settlers would not give him some pork.

KEEPING IN TRIM

From the Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, February 8, 1870.

Wild Bill [Hickok] was up before Judge Holmes yesterday, and fined five dollars for striking straight out from the shoulder and consequently hitting a man.

WILD PLUMS IN 1874

From The Sumner County Press, Wellington, July 16, 1874.

Thousands of bushels of wild plums are ripening on the Arkansas, Ninnescah and Chikaskia rivers. These plums grow on dwarf trees, in some instances covering the entire shrub with a mass of pink and yellow fruit. So abundant are they that a small party can gather a wagon load in a few hours. They are nearly equal to the best cultivated varieties.

GRASSHOPPERS EAT THE SHADE PRESBYTERIANS MOVE INDOORS

From the Marion County Record, Marion, August 8, 1874.

Owing to the destruction of the shade by grasshoppers, the 2d quarterly meeting of the Marion Centre charge will be held in the Presbyterian church in connection with a basket meeting, commencing Friday, Aug. 14. Ministerial aid from abroad. Both saint and sinner are cordially invited to attend. First service, Friday, at 11 A. M. Jno. HAMS.

YES, BUT WHICH WAY DID THEY GOT

From the Jetmore Reveille, September 9, 1885.

Dr. Eckert reports having seen a very novel sign posted on an abandoned dugout in the vicinity of Sunset City, a new town springing up and intended for the future county seat of the southwest corner county [Morton]. It was as follows.

"Two hundred feet to water,
Seventy-five miles to wood,
and Six inches to Hell
God bless our home."

Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains

The latest in scholarship on Kansas history, published quarterly since 1978 by the Kansas Historical Foundation.


February 19, 1945: Uncommon Valor, John Basilone Dies at Iwo Jima

On February 19, 1945, 30,000 US Marines landed on the Japanese held island of Iwo Jima, part of the Volcano Islands chain. The Battle of Iwo Jima is often cited as the most ferocious battle in American History and is a testament to the incredibly brave and dedicated men on both sides that fought and died there. Among the bravest of the brave was Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone, a previous Medal of Honor winner from the Guadalcanal Campaign that was only at Iwo Jima because he demanded to be returned to action instead of staying in the mainland United States selling War Bonds. He died on the first day of fighting on Iwo Jima, once again proving his courage and ferocity under fire. His death was an exclamation point on the horrible fighting that was Iwo Jima.

Digging Deeper

The United States Marine Corps has a long history of brave men under fire, including but not limited to Smedley Butler, Lewis B. “Chesty” Puller, Gregory “Pappy” Boyington, Presley O’Bannon, John Glenn, and a host of others, but John Basilone sticks out for his sacrifice at Iwo Jima when he could well have been safe in the States. Born In Buffalo, New York in 1916, to parents of Italian heritage, his family moved to New Jersey in 1918. John went to Catholic Parochial school until the age of 15 when he dropped out of school before starting high school. He worked as a golf caddy until joining the United States Army in 1934, not even 18 years old. John’s Army time included service in the Philippines, where he excelled as a champion boxer. After his discharge from the Army in 1937, he worked as a truck driver but the call of the Philippines was strong, and John enlisted in the US Marine Corps in 1940, figuring the Corps would be his fastest ticket back to the Philippines. Like many military enlistees, Basilone found out the hard way that you do not always get to pick your duty station! He was sent to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba where he served until the US entered World War II and John became part of the Marine landing force at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands in 1942.

United States Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign

At Guadalcanal in October of 1942, Basilone was nearly 26 years old and had his Army time and a couple of years in the Marines, making him one of the more seasoned NCO’s. In command of 2 machine gun sections, the sector assigned to John’s guns came under heavy and direct attack from fanatical Japanese making a determined attack against the greatly outnumbered Marines. Basilone skillfully used his machine guns until the only Marines still standing were himself and 2 others. Cut off from the other Marines, Basilone would not relinquish his position, and retrieved another machine gun to add to the fight. Then he field repaired yet another gun, and when the machine gun ammo ran out, he ran around the battlefield under fire to personally gather more ammunition for his guns. When even that ammunition ran out, Basilone fought with his pistol and a machete, killing many Japanese at close range and keeping his outpost under incredible odds, virtually destroying the Japanese attacking force of about 3000 men. For this action, John Basilone earned the Medal of Honor, the highest award for bravery in combat an American military person can earn.

Now a major American hero, Basilone was used like many other American military heroes as a shill for selling War Bonds. He quickly tired of the life in the limelight and requested to return to front line duty. The Marine Corps refused, saying he was more valuable in the States selling War Bonds. Eventually his pleas were answered, and he was transferred to Camp Pendleton, California, for training and integration into a combat command. Meanwhile, Basilone had turned down an offer to be made an officer, preferring to stay in the familiar ranks of being a non-commissioned officer. While at Camp Pendleton, John met and married Lena Mae Riggi, a Sergeant in the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve on July 10, 1944.

Sgt. Lena Mae Basilone, USMC(WR), widow of John Basilone, prepares to christen the destroyer USS Basilone (December 21, 1945)

In February of 1945, Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone was back in the Pacific with the 5 th Marine Division, part of the invasion force for the invasion of Iwo Jima, known by the military code name Operation Detachment. Once again, Basilone would be leading Marines in combat with the Japanese as a machine gun section leader. As the Marines tried to advance under withering fire from Japanese fortified positions anchored by concrete blockhouses containing machine guns, Basilone personally ran up the flanks of the blockhouses to get on top and lob in grenades and demolition charges to destroy the Japanese positions. Basilone managed to single handedly kill the Japanese defenders and destroy the fortifications. Fighting their way inland toward the airfield, Basilone led his Marines against heavy Japanese fire. Seeing an American tank stuck in a minefield, Basilone personally led the tank to safety despite being under heavy machine gun and mortar fire. After leading the tank to safety, John Basilone was struck and killed by projectiles in the neck, groin, and arm, killing him instantly. Officially he had been killed by mortar fragments, but later analysis indicated he may have been struck with machine gun bullets. Either way, the great American hero was dead, one of over 6800 Americans that died in the battle for the little island.

John Basilone was awarded the Navy Cross for his heroism at Iwo Jima, the second highest award for bravery in combat a Marine can earn. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, and his widow never remarried, eventually dying in 1999. John Basilone is remembered by having numerous streets and military locations named in his honor, and 2 US Navy destroyers have carried his name. He is remembered as one of the greatest of the many US Marine Corps heroes. Semper fi, John.

John Basilone receiving the Medal of Honor in 1943

Question for students (and subscribers): Who is your favorite famous US Marine? Which Heavyweight Boxing Champions were former US Marines? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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