The Gneisenau and the Scharnhorst were sister ships. Both were battle cruisers and both had done a great deal to turn the Battle of the Atlantic towards a potential German victory. Their dash up the English Channel in February 1942, Operation Cerberus, along with the Prinz Eugen, was a major embarrassment for the Royal Navy.
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The Romans arrived in Britain in 55 BC. The Roman Army had been fighting in Gaul (France) and the Britons had been helping the Gauls in an effort to defeat the Romans. The leader of the Roman Army in Gaul, Julius Caesar, decided that he had to teach the Britons a lesson for helping the Gauls - hence his invasion.
William the Conqueror should strictly be known as William I . William is credited with kick-starting England into the phase known as Medieval England; William was the victor at the Battle of Hastings; he introduced modern castle building techniques into Medieval England and by his death in 1087, he had financially tied down many people with the Domesday Book.
Medieval Cathedrals were the most obvious sign of the wealth of the Church in Medieval England. Huge cathedrals were found principally at Canterbury and York, and in major cities such as Lincoln, Worcester, and Chichester. The cost of these buildings was vast - but the money to pay for these huge buildings came from the people via the many payments they had to make to the Roman Catholic Church in Medieval times.
The farming year in Medieval England was clearly shaped around the weather. At certain times of the year, certain things had to be done by peasant farmers or crops would not have grown. Farming, in this sense, was controlled by the weather. Month Work that needed to be done Weather the farmer wanted January mending and making tools, repairing fences showers February carting manure and marl showers March ploughing and spreading manure dry, no severe frosts April spring sowing of seeds, harrowing showers and sunshine May digging ditches, first ploughing of fallow fields showers and sunshine June hay making, second ploughing of fallow field, sheep-shearing dry weather July hay making, sheep-shearing, weeding of crops dry early, showers later August Harvesting warm, dry weather September threshing, ploughing and pruning fruit trees showers October Last ploughing of the year dry, no severe frosts November collecting acorns for pigs showers and sunshine December Mending and making tools, killing animals showers and sunshine Marl = a limy clay used as manure in Medieval England Frosts were a major worry for Medieval peasants as just one severe frost in the growing season could kill off your crop.
Royal Coats of Arms were first linked to Richard I (1189 to 1199). Richard's coat of arms consisted of three gold lions (guardant) on a red shield. This coat of arms was simply known as 'England'. This format has been on all royal coats of arms since his reign and was used unchanged by John (1199 to 1216), Henry III (1216 to 1272), Edward I (1272 to 1307) and Edward II (1307 to 1327).
Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. The primary function of Hadrian's Wall was to keep out the Picts. The Roman Army had advanced into north England but attacks by the Picts made life difficult for them. Hadrian's Wall was started in AD 122 and it remains a remarkable piece of engineering in the environment it was built in.
Farming dominated the lives of most Medieval people. Many peasants in Medieval England worked the land and, as a result, farming was critically important to a peasant family in Medieval England. Most people lived in villages where there was plenty of land for farming. Medieval towns were small but still needed the food produced by surrounding villages.
Gothic church architecture in Medieval England developed from Norman architecture. 'Gothic architecture' is the term used to describe building styles between 1200 to 1500. Such a large time span meant that a number of styles developed within Gothic architecture and it is common to divide these styles into three sections.
Cambridge University seems to have developed in numbers, and therefore the requirement for colleges, as a result of rivalry between students and towns people in Oxford. The first college at Cambridge was actually founded by Walter de Merton - who founded Merton College at Oxford. It seems that this college at Cambridge, called Pythagoras Hall, was created as Walter anticipated students from Oxford moving elsewhere because of the trouble between students and others in Oxford.